LIO VI (LIO CHK)

 

LESSER INCLUDED CHECKLIST

 

LIO VI(A)   Introduction And Caveats: This checklist is the most comprehensive annotation of lesser included offenses ever published, however please read the following caveats: 

 

CAVEAT I:                        Further independent research beyond this checklist should be conducted because this checklist is limited to included offenses which have been recognized by judicial decisions under the statutory elements of the offense.  Therefore, consideration should always be given as to whether:

 

1.            The charged offense contains a lesser included offense which has yet to be recognized in a published judicial decision, and/or

 

2.            The elements of the offense, as charged, include a lesser offense even though the statutory elements do not.  (See People v. Geiger (84) 35 C3d 510, 517, fn 4 [199 CR 45].)

 

CAVEAT II:                       Independent verification of the material in this checklist should always be made before relying on it.

 

CAVEAT III:                     This checklist does not include lesser related offenses.  Although People v. Birks (98) 19 C4th 108 [77 CR2d 848] purported to preclude such instruction, there may be situations where a theory for instruction may be advanced as defense theory instruction under the federal constitution.  See FORECITE LRO II(B); see also LRO II(C)-(I) for other potential theories.  Hence, notwithstanding Birks consideration should be given to requesting lesser related offenses under the appropriate circumstances.

 

CAVEAT IV:                     Several lesser includeds have been included in this checklist based on the California Center for Judicial Education and Research Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (2004) Cal. Center for Judicial Education and Research (CJER).  For a number of these offenses there appears to be no authority directly on the issue other than the CJER handbook.  FORECITE has endeavored to assess the CJER position and has deleted or noted those that appear to be incorrect.  However, counsel should independently assess the CJER position before relying on it.

 

Attempts:  Pursuant to PC 1159, the attempted commission of any crime is a lesser included offense of that crime.  (See People v. Vanderbilt (26) 190 C 461, 464 [249 P 867].)  However, case law has recognized that certain crimes may not be attempted; e.g. assault (In re James M. (73) 9 C3d 517, 521-22 [108 CR 89]; involuntary manslaughter (People v. Broussard (77) 76 CA3d 193, 196-97 [142 CR 664]; reckless causing of a fire (In re Kent (86) 181 CA3d 721, 73-24 [226 CR 512].)

 

Accessory:  Accessory to a felony is not a lesser included offense where guilt as a principal is alleged.  (People v. Markus (78) 82 CA3d 477 [147 CR 151].)

 

LIO VI(B)   Penal Code (PC) Violations:

 

PC 32 - Accessory To Felony

OFFENSES INCLUDED

a. None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.7.)

PC 67, 67.5(a), 68, 85, 86, 93, 137 - Bribery

OFFENSES INCLUDED

a. None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.26.)

PC 69 - Deterrence or Obstruction Of Executive Officer’s Duties

OFFENSES INCLUDED

a. Misdemeanor resisting arrest (PC 148(a)(1) is lesser included offense of the second prong of PC 69 [resisting performance of duty by executive officer]. (People v. Lacefield (2007) 157 CA4th 249, 262-63; People v. Esquibel (1992) 3 CA4th 850, 854-55; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.84; but see People v. Belmares (2003) 106 CA4th 19; People v. Lopez (2005) 129 CA4th 1508, 1532.)

 

PC 71 - Threat Against Public Officer

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Terrorist threats (PC 422). (In re Marcus T. (2001) 89 CA4th 468, 472 [107 CR2d 451].)

 

PC 118 - Perjury

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Making false statements to the DMV (VC 20) (if application for driver's license).  (People v. Story (85) 168 CA3d 849, 854-55 [216 CR 158].)

 

b.            Submitting false statements to the DMV (VC 20, VC 4000.1) is lesser included of perjury (PC 118).  (See People v. Blanco UNPUBLISHED (C028955).  However, the lesser only applies if the charge involved motor vehicle documents.)  [See Opinion Bank # O-255 and Brief Bank # B-837 for the opinion and briefing in the Blanco case.]

 

c.            An unexecuted deposition containing false statements can provide the basis for a prosecution for attempted perjury. (People v. Post (2001) 94 CA4th 467, 480-83; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.79.)

 

PC 136, 136.1 - Felony Intimidation Of Witness By Force Or Threat

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor intimidation of a witness (PC 136.1(a) and PC 136.1(b)). (People v. Cook (1985) 33 C3d 400, 404; People v. Brenner (1992) 5 CA4th 335, 340 [PC 136(b)(1) is LIO of PC 136(c)(1)]; People v. Hendrix (1992) 8 CA4th 1458; People v. Williams UNPUBLISHED (A061495): felony intimidation of a witness (PC 136.1(c)(1)) reversed for failure to instruct on LIO of misdemeanor intimidation of a witness (PC 136.1(a)); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.69.)

 

b.          Battery (PC 242).  If the information alleges that  the witness intimidation was accomplished by force, then the battery is a necessarily included lesser offense.  If the information charges that the intimidation was accomplished by a threat of force, then the battery is a lesser related offense.  (See People v. Pacheco UNPUBLISHED (H008735).)  [The opinion and briefing in Pacheco are available to FORECITE subscribers.  Ask for Opinion Bank # O‑160 and Brief Bank # B‑602.]

 

PC 137(b) - Inducing A False Statement By Force, Threat Or Fraud

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor offense of knowingly inducing a false statement (PC 137(c)).  (People v. Miles (96) 43 CA4th 575, 580 [51 CR2d 52].)

 

PC 140(a) - Threatening Witnesses, Victims, Or Informants

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.104.)

 

PC 148(b)-(d), 148.10 - Resisting Arrest

 

ALERT:                 A plea of no contest or guilty, or a finding of guilt, to a charge of resisting arrest under PC 148 precludes a defendant from pursuing a federal civil rights lawsuit under 42 USC 1983 for excessive force. Although a plea of no contest affords some protection in state court, it precludes a similar lawsuit in federal court. [See Brief Bank # B-824 for the letter briefing this issue.]

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Misdemeanor resisting arrest (PC 148(a)) is a lesser included offense of PC 148(b)-(c). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.84.)

 

PC 148.1(c) - Bomb Threat

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Making harassing calls to 911 emergency line (PC 653x). (People v. Cheaves (2003) 113 CA4th 445.)

 

PC 182 - Conspiracy

 

1.             Conspiracy to Commit Robbery

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Conspiracy to commit theft is a lesser included offense of conspiracy to commit robbery.  (People v. Kelley (90) 220 CA3d 1358, 1365-70 [269 CR 900].)

 

2.             Conspiracy To Commit Murder

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.          Conspiracy to commit other offenses. Neither conspiracy to commit assault, battery, nor mayhem is included within the statutory elements of a charge of conspiracy to commit murder.  (People v. Fenenbock (96) 46 CA4th 1688, 1707 [54 CR2d 608].)

 

b.           Second degree murder and manslaughter. People v. Cortez (98) 18 C4th 1223 [77 CR2d 733] overruling People v. Horn (74) 12 C3d 290 [115 CR 516] on this issue.

 

PC 186.10 - Money Laundering

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.77.)

 

PC 186.22 - Gang Crime

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.            None. “The predicate offenses that establish a pattern of criminal gang activity are not lesser included offenses of PC 186.22(a).” (See California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.55; People v. Burnell (2005) 132 CA4th 938.)

 

PC 187/PC 664 - Attempted Murder

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted second degree murder as LIO of attempted first degree murder -- Use Note to CJ 8.66 (5th ed. 1988) but in apparent reliance on depublished opinion of People v. Victor DEPUBLISHED (89) 214 CA3d 407, 412-15 [262 CR 616].  (See People v. Douglas (90) 220 CA3d 544, 549 [269 CR 579] and People v. Bright (96) 12 C4th 652 [49 CR2d 732].)

 

b.           Attempted voluntary manslaughter (PC 192/PC 664). (People v. Eilers (91) 231 CA3d 288, 292, 296 [282 CR 252]; People v. Zapata (92) 9 CA4th 527, 531 [12 CR2d 118].) [See Brief Bank # B-963 for the briefing and opinion on this issue; People v. Lor UNPUBLISHED (F034023) 2002 Cal.App. Unpub. LEXIS 9697.]

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery with great bodily injury enhancement (PC 242 and PC 12022.7).  (People v. Toro (89) 47 C3d 966, 972 [254 CR 811] [PC 243(d) is not a LIO of PC 664/PC 187].)

 

b.            Assault with a deadly weapon (PC 245).  (People v. Gragg (89) 216 CA3d 32, 41 [264 CR 765]; People v. Zapata (92) 9 CA4th 527, 533 [12 CR2d 118]; In re David S. (83) 148 CA3d 156, 158-59 [195 CR 754].)

 

c.            Assault on a police officer with a firearm (PC 245(d)(1).)  (People v. Daly (92) 8 CA4th 47, 58 [10 CR2d 21] citing People v. Young (81) 120 CA3d 683, 689-90 [175 CR 1].)

 

d.            Assault with firearm. (People v. Parks (2004) 118 CA4th 1 [assault with a firearm (PC 245(a)(2)) is not a lesser included offense of attempted murder (PC 664, 187)].

 

PC 187 - Murder

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Voluntary manslaughter.  (People v. Thompson (61) 193 CA2d 620, 627 [14 CR 512]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 523).)

 

b.           Involuntary manslaughter.  (People v. Landrum (68) 261 CA2d 372, 376 [67 CR 911]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 523); In re McCartney (66) 64 C2d 830, 831 [51 CR 894]; see also, People v. Woods (91) 226 CA3d 1037, 1051-52 [277 CR 269] [shooting at close range]; People v. Saille (91) 54 C3d 1103, 1121 [2 CR 364]; People v. Berryman (93) 6 C4th 1048, 1080 [25 CR2d 867]; People v. Orr (94) 22 CA4th 780, 784 [27 CR2d 553]; People v. Moore UNPUBLISHED (A062326) [murder conviction reversed for failure to instruct upon lesser included offense of involuntary manslaughter]; People v. Lopez UNPUBLISHED (9/30/96, B095782).

 

c.           Both voluntary and involuntary manslaughter.  (In re McCartney (66) 64 C2d 830, 831 [51 CR 894]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 523); see also, People v. Lewis (60) 186 CA2d 585, 596-98 [9 CR 263] and cases cited therein. )

 

d.           Assault with a deadly weapon where use of deadly weapon is charged in committing murder / assault with means likely to produce great bodily injury. (People v. Lewis (60) 186 CA2d 585, 600 [9 CR 263]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 523).) BUT SEE OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED, BELOW.

 

e.           Involuntary manslaughter (PC 192) where evidence showed possibility of inability to form intent based on use of methamphetamine.  (People v. Webber (91) 228 CA3d 1146, 1160-65 [279 CR 437].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Second degree murder based upon implied malice where no evidence to support. (People v. Smith (87) 188 CA3d 1495, 1512 [234 CR 142]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 523).)

 

b.            Assault with deadly weapon if not charged.  (People v. Ireland (69) 70 C2d 522, 539-40, fn 14 [75 CR 188]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524); People v. Dixie (79) 98 CA3d 852, 856 [159 CR 717]; see also, People v. Zapata (92) 9 CA4th 527, 533 [12 CR2d 118]; In re David S. (83) 148 CA3d 156, 158 [195 CR 754].) 

 

c.            Battery (unless requested by defendant).  (People v. Mayes (68) 262 CA2d 195, 200-01 [68 CR 476]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

d.            Dueling.  (People v. Green (71) 15 CA3d 524, 529-30 [93 CR 84]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

e.            Robbery.  (People v. Hoyt (42) 20 C2d 306, 316-17 [125 P2d 29]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524); see also, People v. Johnson (44) 67 CA2d 195, 196 [153 P2d 784].)

 

f.            Grand theft person.  (People v. Brunt (72) 24 CA3d 945, 955 [101 CR 457] citing People v. Asher (69) 273 CA2d 876, 905-09 [78 CR 885].); CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

g.            Burglary.  (People v. Johnson (44) 67 CA2d 195, 196 [153 P2d 784]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C p. 524).)

 

h.            Accessory after the fact.  (People v. Preston (73) 9 C3d 308, 319 [107 CR 300]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

i.             Brandishing a weapon (PC 417).  (People v. Beach (83) 147 CA3d 612, 625-26 [195 CR 381]; CJ 8.10 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

j.             Conspiracy to commit other offenses.  Neither assault, battery, nor mayhem qualify as offenses included within the statutory definition of murder.  (People v. Fenenbock (96) 46 CA4th 1688, 1707 [54 CR2d 608].)

 

k.            Gross vehicular manslaughter while intoxicated (PC 191.5). (People v. Sanchez (2001) 24 C4th 983 [103 CR2d 698].)

 

l.             Child abuse (PC 273ab). (People v. Malfavon (2002) 102 CA4th 727 [125 CR2d 618].)

 

PC 187 - First Degree Malice Murder

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Second degree murder (PC 189).  (People v. Cooper (91) 53 C3d 771, 827 [281 CR 90]; People v. Wickersham (82) 32 C3d 307, 326 [185 CR 436].

 

b.           Voluntary manslaughter (PC 192(a)).  There are a number of situations in which instruction on voluntary manslaughter as a lesser offense to murder may be appropriate.  See FORECITE F 5.17, F 8.40, F 8.42

 

c.          Involuntary manslaughter.  (PC 192(b)).  There are a number of situations in which instruction on involuntary manslaughter as a lesser offense to murder may be appropriate.  See FORECITE F 8.45 and F 8.47.

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Second degree murder where no evidence to show lesser degree (PC 189).  (People v. Kaurish (90) 52 C3d 648, 695-96 [276 CR 788].)

 

b.           Involuntary manslaughter where no evidence of diminished capacity (PC 192).  (People v. Kaurish (90) 52 C3d 648, 695-96 [276 CR 788].)

 

c.            Vehicular manslaughter.  (In re James L. DEPUBLISHED (78) 79 CA3d 577, 577 [145 CR 104] [PC 192(3)(a) not LIO of murder PC 187].)

 

PC 189 - First Degree Felony Murder

 

NOTE:  The jury should be instructed upon any lesser included or lesser related offense to the felony upon which felony murder is predicated.  See FORECITE F 8.21 n2 and F 8.21 n3.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Second degree murder and manslaughter resulting from attempted rape.  (People v. Miller (1962) 57 CA2d 821, 828-29; CJ 8.21 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

b.            Second degree murder and manslaughter resulting from killing by torture.  (People v. Cooley (1962) 211 CA2d 173, 210; see also FORECITE F 8.24 n4; but see People v. Hindmarsh (1986) 185 CA3d 334, 350; CJ 8.21 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

c.            First degree “malice-aforethought” premeditated murder if killing preceded intent to steal where felony is robbery (PC 189).  (See, e.g., People v. Duncan (1991) 53 CA3d 955, 969.)

 

d.           Theft is LIO of felony murder (robbery) if intent to steal is formed after killing victim.  (People v. Ramkeesoon (1985) 39 CA3d 346, 351; People v. Melton (1988) 44 CA3d 713, 745-46.)

 

g.            The lesser-included offense of the felony underlying the felony murder charge. (Villafuerte v. Stewart (9th Cir. 1997) 111 F3d 616.)

 

h.            Conspiracy (PC 182) [when relied upon as predicate felony by the prosecution]. (See People v. Nguyen DEPUBLISHED (2003) 111 CA4th 184.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Second degree murder where no evidence to show lesser degree.  (People v. Kaurish (1990) 52 CA3d 648, 695-96.) *See also NOTE, below.

 

b.            Voluntary manslaughter based on sudden quarrel or heat of passion.  (People v. Balderas (1985) 41 CA3d 144, 196-97; CJ 8.21 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 524).)

 

c.            Felony child endangerment.  (People v. Mincey (1992) 2 CA4th 408, 452 [PC 273a(1)) not a LIO of first degree torture murder].)

 

d.            First degree premeditated murder.  (People v. Wilson (2008) 43 CA4th 1, 16, fn 5.)

 

NOTE:  Can Second Degree Murder Be A Lesser Included Of First Degree Felony Murder? The Supreme Court has “concluded that first degree premeditated murder is not a lesser included offense of first degree felony murder, but ha[s] left open the question as to second degree murder.” (People v. Wilson (2008) 43 CA4th 1, 16, fn. 5; see also People v. Taylor (2010) 48 CA4th 574, 623; People v. Huynh (2012) 212 CA4th 285, 314.) Although it declined in People v. Valdez (2004) 32 CA4th 73, 114–115, footnote 17, to determine whether second degree murder is a lesser included offense of first degree felony murder, it did note in Valdez (id., at p. 140 (dis. opn. of Chin, J.)) “the Attorney General's contention that second degree murder is not a lesser included offense of first degree felony murder, because malice is an element of second degree murder, but is not an element of first degree felony murder.” (People v. Castaneda (2011) 51 CA4th 1292, 1328–1329.) Castaneda noted that the defendant there did “not address ... how second degree murder, which requires malice, can be a lesser included offense of first degree felony murder, which does not require malice…” (Id. at p. 1329; see also People v. Cavitt (2004) 33 CA4th 187, 197.)

 

PC 189 - Second Degree Murder

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Involuntary manslaughter as LIO of second degree child abuse murder.  (People v. Evers (92) 10 CA4th 588, 596-97 [12 CR2d 637] [involuntary manslaughter could be a lesser included offense of 2nd degree murder if the death was the result of the defendant’s inexperience as a parent in handling children and not the product of his conscious disregard of the risk to the child’s life].)

 

PC 189 - Unpremeditated Second Degree Murder

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Involuntary manslaughter.  (People v. Edwards (85) 39 C3d 107, 118 [216 CR 397]; People v. Welborn (66) 242 CA2d 668, 676-77 [51 CR 644]; People v. Foskett UNPUBLISHED (A070401) [A copy of the Foskett opinion is available to FORECITE subscribers.  Ask for Opinion Bank #O-236]; CJ 8.30  (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

b.            Vehicular manslaughter while DUI with gross negligence (PC 191.5).  (People v. Brogna (88) 202 CA3d 700, 703 [248 CR 761].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery.  (People v. Breland (66) 243 CA2d 644, 650 [52 CR 696]; CJ 8.30 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

PC 189 - Second Degree Felony Murder

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Felony child endangerment (PC 273a(1)) of the assaultive variety is LIO of second degree felony murder where based on the death of the child abuse victim.  (People v. Smith (84) 35 C3d 798, 806-07 [201 CR 311].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Abortion (PC 800 [repealed]).  (People v. Coltrin (36) 5 C2d 649, 660 [55 P2d 1161]; CJ 8.32 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

PC 191.5 - Gross Vehicular Manslaughter While Intoxicated

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            DUI with bodily harm (VC 23153(a)).  (People v. Miranda (94) 21 CA4th 1464, 1468 [26 CR2d 610].)

 

b.            Gross vehicular manslaughter (PC 192(c)(1)).  (People v. Miranda (94) 21 CA4th 1464, 1468 [26 CR2d 610].)

 

c.            Vehicular manslaughter while intoxicated (PC 192(c)(3).  (People v. Fields (96) 13 C4th 289, 295-96, 300 fn 2 [52 CR2d 282]; People v. Piceno (87) 195 CA3d 1353, 1355 [241 CR 391].)

 

PC 192(a) - Voluntary Manslaughter

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Involuntary manslaughter is not LIO of voluntary manslaughter.  (People v. Orr (94) 22 CA4th 780, 782-85 [27 CR2d 553].)

 

PC 192(b) - Involuntary Manslaughter

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery.  (People v. Williams (61) 189 CA2d 254, 265 [11 CR 142]; CJ 8.45 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

PC 192(c)(1) - Vehicular Manslaughter With Gross Negligence

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Vehicular manslaughter without gross negligence (PC 192(c)(2)).  (People v. Wattier (96) 51 CA4th 948, 956 [59 CR2d 483]; People v. Rogers (49) 94 CA2d 166, 167 [210 P2d 71]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Reckless driving (VC 23103).  (People v. Herbert (36) 6 C2d 541, 547-48 [58 P2d 909]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

b.            Failing to yield right of way.  (Wyatt v. Municipal Court (66) 242 CA2d 845, 848-49 [51 CR 862]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

c.            Violation of rule of road.  (People v. Wilson (24) 193 C 512, 515 [226 P 5]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

PC 192.5 - Vehicular Manslaughter

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor vehicular manslaughter.  (People v. Rogers (49) 94 CA2d 166, 166-67 [210 P2d 71]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Reckless driving (VC 23103).  (People v. Herbert (36) 6 C2d 541, 547-48 [58 P2d 909]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

b.            Failing to yield right of way.  (Wyatt v. Municipal Court (66) 242 CA2d 845, 848-49 [51 CR 862]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

c.            Violation of rule of road.  (People v. Wilson (24) 193 C 512, 515 [226 P 5]; CJ 8.90, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 525).)

 

d.            Felony drunk driving (VC 23152).  (People v. Rocha (78) 80 CA3d 972, 976 [146 CR 8] [felony drunk driving is not a LIO of vehicular manslaughter]; People v. Young (64) 224 CA2d 420, 425 [36 CR 672].)  Nor are the two offenses mutually exclusive so as to preclude a conviction of both].)

 

e.            Unsafe lane change. (VC 21658(a)).  (In re Dennis B. (76) 18 C3d 687, 692 [135 CR 82].)

 

PC 203 - Mayhem

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (People v. Defoor (1893) 100 C 150, 153-54 [34 P 642] [assault with intent to murder]; CJ 9.30 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.)

 

b.            Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.)

 

c.            Attempt (PC 663, 203). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.)

 

d.           Battery with serious bodily injury (PC 243(d)). People v. Ausbie (2004) 123 CA4th 855, 859. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75).

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Assault by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury (PC 245(a)(1).) (People v. Ausbie (2004) 123 CA4th 860-62; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.)

 

b.            Attempted battery (PC 242/PC 664). [NF] People v. Santana REV GTD (2/22/2012, S198324) 200 CA4th 182: There is no offense of attempted battery resulting in serious bodily injury. Santana asserted the trial court should have instructed sua sponte on attempted battery with serious bodily injury as a lesser included offense of mayhem. However, "there is no authority to support the existence of 'attempted battery resulting in serious bodily injury' under California law."

 

PC 205 - Aggravated Mayhem

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Simple mayhem (PC 203). (People v. Bell UNPUBLISHED (A060970).) [The opinion and briefing in Bell are available to FORECITE subscribers. Ask for Opinion Bank # O-200 and Brief Bank # B-678.] 

 

b.            Battery (PC 242).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.)

 

c.           Battery with serious bodily injury (PC 243(d)). (People v. Ausbie (2004) 123 CA4th 860-62; People v. Hill (1994) 23 CA4th 1566, 1575 [GBI is element of mayhem]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Simple mayhem Assault by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury (PC 245(a)(1).) (People v. Ausbie (2004) 123 CA4th 860-62; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.75.) 

 

PC 206 - Torture

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.           Extortion included within offense of torture for purpose of extortion when defendant achieves purpose. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.105; see also § 2.48.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Assaultive crimes (PC 245, PC 273a, PC 273d, PC 273.5) [because assault can be committed without a touching of the victim].)

 

b.           Battery (PC 242/PC 243(d)) (People v. Lewis (2004) 120 CA4th 882, 888.)

 

c.           Assault with a deadly weapon (PC 245(a)(1) is not a lesser included offense of torture. (People v. Martinez (2005) 125 CA4th 1035; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.105.)

 

d.           Assault by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury (PC 245(a)(1) is not a lesser included offense of torture. (People v. Hamlin (2009) 170 CA4th 1412, 1456; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.105.)

 

PC 207(a) - Kidnapping

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted kidnapping (PC 663/207). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.70.)

 

b.            Misdemeanor false imprisonment.  (People v. Morrison (1964) 228 CA2d 707, 713)

 

c.           False imprisonment (PC 236-237). (People v. Magana (1991) 230 CA3d 1117, 1120; People v. Gibbs (1970) 12 CA3d 526, 547; People v. Guttierrez (1978) 80 CA3d 829, 831; People v. Duran UNPUBLISHED (A062235) [kidnapping (PC 207) conviction reversed for failure to instruct on lesser included offense of false imprisonment (PC 236)]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.70.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault.  (People v. Dukes (66) 241 CA2d 488, 495 fn 9 [50 CR 609].)

 

PC 207(b) - Kidnapping For Purpose Of Child Molestation

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted kidnapping (PC 663/207). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.71.)

 

b.            Kidnapping (PC 207). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.71.)

 

c.            False imprisonment (PC 236-237). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.71.)

 

d.            Attempted lewd and lascivious act on child (PC 663/288). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.71.)

 

e.            Lewd and lascivious act on child (PC 288). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.71.)

 

PC 207(b)/PC 664 - Attempted Kidnapping To Commit Robbery

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Attempted kidnap for robbery (PC 209(b)) [when victim escapes before commission of robbery]. (People v. Mullins (92) 6 CA4th 1216, 1219-21 [8 CR2d 289]; see also, People v. Daly (92) 8 CA4th 47, 57 [10 CR2d 21].)

 

PC 208(d) - Kidnapping To Commit Rape

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            False imprisonment (PC 236).  (People v. Magana (91) 230 CA3d 1117, 1120-21 [281 CR 338].)

 

PC 209(a) - Kidnapping For Ransom, Reward, Or Extortion

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted kidnapping (PC 663/207). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.73.)

 

b.            Simple kidnapping (PC 207(a)). (People v. Ojeda-Parra (1992) 7 CA4th 46, 48-49; People v. Ordonez (1991) 226 CA3d 1207, 1232; People v. Rudman UNPUBLISHED (A046536/A066864) [PC 209 kidnapping for robbery conviction reversed for failure to instruct upon lesser included offense of simple kidnap (PC 207). Court rejected AG’s argument that there is no duty to instruct on LIO’s when the defense is alibi]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.73.)

 

c.           False imprisonment (PC 236).  (People v. Ordonez (1991) 226 CA3d 1207, 1232; People v. Gibbs (1970) 12 CA3d 526, 547; People v. Morrison (1964) 228 CA2d 707, 713; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.73.)

 

d.            Attempted extortion (PC 663/518). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.73.)

 

e.            Extortion (PC 518). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.73.)

 

f.             Assault with a deadly weapon (PC 245). (People v. Norris (1985) 40 C3d 51, 57; CJ 9.53 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

PC 209(b) - Kidnapping To Commit Robbery Or Sex Offense

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72.)

 

b.            Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72.)

 

c.            Attempted kidnapping (PC 663/207). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72.)

 

d.            Kidnapping (PC 207). (People v. Smith (1963) 223 CA2d 225, 234; People v. Gallagher (1958) 164 CA2d 414, 419; CJ 9.54 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72.)

 

e.           False imprisonment (PC 236). (People v. Morrison (1964) 228 CA2d 707, 713; CJ 9.54 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72.)

 

f.            Attempted robbery (PC 663/211). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of robbery].)

 

g.            Robbery if purpose achieved (PC 211). (People v. Ford (1966) 65 C2d 41, 49; CJ 9.54 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530); (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72.)

 

h.           Attempted rape or spousal rape (PC 663/261). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of rape or spousal rape].)

 

i.            Rape or spousal rape (PC 261). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of rape or spousal rape when kidnapper achieves purpose].)

 

j.            Attempted oral copulation (PC 663/288a). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of oral copulation].)

 

k.           Oral copulation (PC 288a). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of oral copulation when kidnapper achieves purpose].)

 

l.            Attempted sodomy (PC 663/286). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of sodomy].)

 

m.          Sodomy (PC 663/286). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of sodomy when kidnapper achieves purpose].)

 

n.            Attempted sexual penetration (PC 663/289). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of sexual penetration].)

 

o.           Sexual penetration (PC 663/289). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of sexual penetration when kidnapper achieves purpose].)

 

p.            Attempted lewd and lascivious act (PC 663/288). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of lewd and lascivious act].)

 

q.           Lewd and lascivious act (PC 663/288). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.72 [included within offense of kidnapping for purpose of lewd and lascivious act when kidnapper achieves purpose].)

 

PC 209.5(a) - Kidnapping During The Commission Of A Carjacking

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663/209.5(a)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.74.)

 

b.           Attempted carjacking (PC 664/PC 215(a)). (People v. Medina (2007) 41 C4th 685 [attempted kidnapping and attempted carjacking are lesser-included offenses of attempted kidnapping during the commission of carjacking]; People v. Jones (1999) 75 CA4th 616, 626; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.74.)

 

c.           Carjacking (PC 215) is a necessarily lesser included offense within the crime of kidnapping to facilitate carjacking (PC 209.5). (People v. Ortiz (2002) 101 CA4th 410, 415; People v. Contreras (1997) 55 CA4th 760; People v. Navarro (2006) 40 C4th 668, 695; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.74.)

 

d.           Attempted kidnapping (PC 664/PC 209.5(a)). (People v. Medina (2007) 41 C4th 685, 700-702 [attempted kidnapping and attempted carjacking are lesser-included offenses of attempted kidnapping during the commission of carjacking]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.74.)

 

e.            Kidnapping (PC 207). (People v. Navarro (2006) 40 CA4th 668, 695.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Unlawful taking of a vehicle without consent (VC 10851(a)) and joyriding (PC 499b). (People v. Russell (1996) 45 CA4th 1083; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.74.)

 

PC 211 - Robbery

 

For Conspiracy to Commit Robbery, see PC 182 above

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault with intent to commit robbery (PC 220 [since amended]).  (People v. Blue (58) 161 CA2d 1, 6 [326 P2d 183]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); but see People v. Wolcott (83) 34 C3d 92, 96 [192 CR 748].)

 

b.           Grand theft  (PC 487).  (People v. Ortega (98) 19 C4th 686, 693-94 [80 CR2d 489]; People v. Cole (82) 31 C3d 568, 582 [183 CR 350]; People v. Webster (91) 54 C3d 411, 443 [285 CR 31]; see also, People v. Sutton (73) 35 CA3d 264, 270 [110 CR 635] [ADW not, but theft of firearm is LIO of PC 211 if firearm is the object of the PC 211].)

 

c.           Grand theft person (PC 487(2)).  (People v. Ortega (98) 19 C4th 686, 693-94 [80 CR2d 489]; People v. Smith (68) 268 CA2d 117, 121 [73 CR 859]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); People v. Drake (77) 19 C3d 749, 753 [139 CR 720]; People v. Williams (92) 9 CA4th 1465, 1471-72 [12 CR2d 243] [failure to instruct on grand theft as an LIO of robbery held harmless where jury was instructed on and rejected petty theft]; People v. Chandler (65) 234 CA2d 705, 708 [44 CR 750]; People v. Webster (91) 54 C3d 411, 443 [285 CR 31]; People v. Brew (91) 2 CA3d 99, 104 [2 CR2d 851] [grand theft from the person (PC 487(1)) and grand theft by larceny (PC 487(2)) may both be lesser offenses of robbery.  However, the elements of each lesser offense are different.  Grand theft from person requires that the property be taken from the victim’s body, clothing or a receptacle carried by the victim without force or fear.  Grand theft larceny only requires a finding of no force or fear (Brew at 105-06)].)

 

d.           Grand theft auto.  (People v. Ortega (98) 19 C4th 686, 693-94 [80 CR2d 489]; People v. Escobar (96) 45 CA4th 477 [53 CR2d 9] [Grand theft auto included in robbery when automobile is part of the property taken in the robbery]; (People v. Gamble (94) 22 CA4th 446, 450 [27 CR2d 451] [where auto is part of loot and charges include only one victim on one date].)  (See FORECITE F 9.40 n7.)

 

e.           Theft (PC 486).  (People v. Ortega (98) 19 C4th 686, 693-94 [80 CR2d 489]; People v. Melton (88) 44 C3d 713, 745-46 [244 CR 867]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); People v. Kelley (90) 220 CA3d 1358, 1366-69 [269 CR 900] [defendant enticed victim into becoming intoxicated so defendant could take property]; People v. Harris (79) 93 CA3d 103, 118 [155 CR 472]; see also, People v. Turner (90) 50 C3d 668, 688 [268 CR 706] and People v. Ramkeesoon (85) 39 C3d 346, 351 [216 CR 455] [if intent to steal is formed “after force was used”]; People v. Webster (91) 54 C3d 411, 443 [285 CR 31] [right to pinpoint instruction on request]; People v. Kelly (92) 1 C4th 495, 529-30 [3 CR2d 677] [stealing from dead person is theft unless defendant killed with intent to steal]; People v. Mungia (91) 234 CA3d 1703, 1707-08 [286 CR 394]; People v. Morales (75) 49 CA3d 134, 139 [122 CR 157]; People v. Pham (93) 15 CA4th 61, 68 [18 CR2d 636]) [if defendant abandons the loot before application of any force or fear].)

 

f.            Larceny (PC 484).  (People v. Ortega (98) 19 C4th 686, 693-94 [80 CR2d 489]; People v. Covington (34) 1 C2d 316, 321 [34 P2d 1019]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528).)

 

g.           Petty theft (PC 486).  (People v. Ortega (98) 19 C4th 686, 693-94 [80 CR2d 489]; People v. Covington (34) 1 C2d 316, 321 [34 P2d 1019]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); People v. Webster (91) 54 C3d 411, 443 [285 CR 31].)

 

h.            Unlawful vehicle taking (VC 10851) if pleaded.  (People v. Marshall (57) 48 C2d 394, 399-401 [309 P2d 456]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528).)

 

i.             Attempted robbery (PC 211/PC 664).  (People v. Webster (91) 54 C3d 411, 443 [285 CR 31]; People v. Crary (68) 265 CA2d 534 [71 CR 457].)

 

j.            Attempted theft (PC 211/PC 664).  (People v. Reeves (2001) 91 CA4th 14, 53 [109 CR2d 728]  [court erred in failing to instruct on attempted theft as LIO of attempted robbery where defendant moved property in the victim’s house prior to waking and assaulting her].)

 

k.           Battery (PC 242). (See People v. Fuentes DEPUBLISHED (2004) 116 CA4th 226 [battery is a lesser included offense of robbery in a case in which the charging document alleges "force and fear"].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted murder (PC 187/PC 664).  (People v. Birdwell (67) 253 CA2d 621, 631-33 [61 CR 536]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

b.           Use of a firearm under PC 12022.5 cannot be the basis for a lesser included offense.  (People v. Wolcott (83) 34 C3d 92, 100-01 [192 CR 748] [ADW is not a LIO under a charge of robbery with an enhancement for use of a firearm in a robbery without employing it to assault the victim]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

c.           Carrying concealed weapon (PC 12025).  (People v. Coleman (70) 8 CA3d 722, 734 [87 CR 554]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

d.           Commission of acts which seriously endanger public peace or health.  (PC 650 ½ / PC 650.5 [repealed]  1991 ch. 186] [PC 650 ½ applies only to acts not otherwise punishable under the PC citing In re Bevill (68) 68 C2d 854, 862 [69 CR 599].)

 

e.           Simple kidnapping (PC 207).  (People v. Szczechowicz (62) 199 CA2d 571, 577 [18 CR 882]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

f.            Extortion (PC 518).  (In re Stanley E. (78) 81 CA3d 415, 418, 420 [146 CR 232] [depending on language in charges]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

g.           Burglary (PC 459).  (People v. Candelaria (57) 153 CA2d 879, 883-86 [315 P2d 386]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

h.            Receiving stolen property (PC 496).  (People v. Mora (56) 139 CA2d 266, 273-74 [293 P2d 522]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529).)

 

i.             Unlawful vehicle taking (VC 10851) if not alleged. (But see People v. Aho (84) 152 CA3d 658, 664 [199 CR 671]; CJ 9.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 529); also People v. Johnson DEPUBLISHED (95) 40 CA4th 579, 591 [47 CR2d 16].)

 

j.            Theft from a dead body (PC 642).  (People v. Cooks (83) 141 CA3d 224, 333 [190 CR 211]; see also People v. Yeoman (2003) 31 C4th 93, 129 [theft from a dead human body may be a lesser related offense to robbery but is not a lesser included offense].)

 

k.           Assault (PC 240).  (People v. Wolcott (83) 34 C3d 92, 100 [192 CR 748]; but see People v. Wright (96) 51 CA4th 818, 840-42 [59 CR2d 316] [robbery by “force” has a broader meaning than force as used for purposes of defining assault but instruction on lesser assault offenses must be given upon request based on People v. Carter (69) 275 CA2d 815 [80 CR 202] and People v. Duncan (45) 72 CA2d 423 [164 P2d 510]].)

 

l.            Assault with a deadly weapon (PC 245).  (People v. McGreen (80) 107 CA3d 504, 513 [166 CR 360]; People v. Wolcott (83) 34 C3d 92, 98-100 [192 CR 748]; People v. Johnson DEPUBLISHED (95) 40 CA4th 579, 591 [47 CR2d 16]; but see People v. Wright (96) 51 CA4th 818, 840 [59 CR2d 316] [robbery by “force” has a broader meaning than force as used for purposes of defining assault but instruction on lesser assault offenses must be given upon request based on People v. Carter (69) 275 CA2d 815 [80 CR 202] and People v. Duncan (45) 72 CA2d 423 [164 P2d 510].])

 

m.          Felony false imprisonment (PC 236).  (People v. Von Villas (92) 10 CA4th 201, 255-56 [13 CR2d 62].)

 

n.            Exhibiting, or using of a firearm or deadly weapon in a rude, angry or threatening manner (PC 417) is not a “necessarily lesser included” offense of robbery. (In re James L. DEPUBLISHED (78) 79 CA3d 577, 577 [145 CR 104].)

 

o.            Carjacking.  (People v. Dominquez (95) 38 CA4th 410, 416-19 [45 CR2d 153].)

 

PC 215 - Carjacking

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663, 215). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.28.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Unlawful vehicle taking (VC 10851(a)). [Vehicle taking is not lesser included of carjacking (PC 215) because vehicle taking is a crime against ownership and carjacking a crime against possession] (People v. Antoine UNPUBLISHED PORTION (1996, D023183) 96 DAR 9841, 9845, 96 CDOS 6050; see also People v. Montoya (2004) 33 CA4th 1031 [VC 10851 is not a lesser included offense of PC 215]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.28; compare People v. Dominquez (1995) 38 CA4th 410, 416-18.) [A copy of the Antoine opinion is available to FORECITE subscribers. Ask for Opinion Bank # O-211.]

 

b.            Grand theft (PC 484-487h). (People v. Dominquez (1995) 38 CA4th 410, 416-18; People v. Antoine UNPUBLISHED PORTION (1996, D023183) 96 DAR 9841, 9845, 96 CDOS 6050; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.28.) 

 

c.           Theft (PC 484) or theft of a vehicle (PC 487h). (People v. Ortega (1998) 19 CA4th 686, 693-94 [theft requires intent to permanently deprive which is not required for carjacking].)

 

d.           Attempted grand theft auto. (People v. Marquez (2007) 152 CA4th 1064, 1068 [GTA requires intent to permanently deprive while carjacking does not]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.28.)

 

NOTE:  Effective January 1, 1997, PC 487h was repealed, and “automobile” was added to the grand theft statute (PC 487(d)). (See FORECITE F 14.37 n4 [ALERT: Legislative Changes To Auto Theft And Related Statutes].)

 

PC 217 - Assault With Intent To Commit Murder [repealed 1980 ch. 300]

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted voluntary manslaughter (PC 664/PC 193) if possible lack of capacity for malice.  (People v. Kozel (82) 133 CA3d 507, 525 [184 CR 208]; People v. Hunt (82) 133 CA3d 543, 543 [184 CR 197]; People v. Heffington (73) 32 CA3d 1, 10-12 [107 CR 859].)

 

b.            Attempt to commit a felony.  (People v. Christian (1894) 101 C 471, 474 [35  P 1043].)

 

c.            Attempted murder if the assault is coupled with a threat to kill (People v. Meriweather (68) 263 CA2d 559, 563 [69 CR 880].)

 

d.            Assault with a deadly weapon (PC 245).  (People v. Schueren (73) 10 C3d 553, 556-58 [111 CR 129]; People v. McCurdy (58) 165 CA2d 592, 597 [332 P2d 350].)

 

e.            Exhibiting a firearm in a threatening manner, if supported by the evidence.  (People v. Coffey (67) 67 C2d 204, 222, fn 21 [60 CR 457].)

 

f.            Assault.  (People v. Coffey (67) 67 C2d 204, 222 [60 CR 457]; People v. Heffington (73) 32 CA3d 1, 8 [107 CR 859].)

 

g.            Assault by means of force to produce great bodily injury.  (People v. McCurdy (58) 165 CA2d 592, 597 [332 P2d 350].) 

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault if use of a deadly weapon is shown.  (People v. Walker (47) 82 CA2d 196, 197-99 [185 P2d 842].)

 

PC 220 - Assault With Intent To Commit Specified Offenses (Mayhem, Rape, Sodomy, Oral Copulation, PC 264.1, PC 288, or PC 289)

 

1.             Oral Copulation

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Attempted oral copulation (PC 286/PC 664).  (People v. Saunders (91) 232 CA3d 1592, 1598 [284 CR 212].)

 

2.             Assault with Intent to Commit Rape

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Simple assault (PC 240).  (People v. Carapeli (88) 201 CA3d 589, 595 [247 CR 478];  People v. Poon (81) 125 CA3d 55, 81 [178 CR 375]; People v. Allison (66) 245 CA2d 568, 572-75 [54 CR 148]; People v. Garza UNPUBLISHED (AO62611) [assault with intent to commit rape (PC 220) conviction reversed for failure to instruct upon simple assault as lesser included offense].)

 

b.             Attempted rape.  (People v. Rupp (53) 41 C2d 371, 382 [260 P2d 1]; People v. Ramirez (69) 2 CA3d 345, 348 [82 CR 665].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Attempted sexual battery (PC 243.4(a)).  (People v. Dixon (99) 75 CA4th 935 [89 CR2d 602].)

 

PC 220(a)(1) - Assault With Intent To Commit Sex Offense

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Attempt to commit designated sex offense (PC 663). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.16.)

 

a.             Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.16.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Attempted sexual battery (PC 664/243.4) is not a necessarily included offense of assault to commit rape. (People v. Dixon (1999) 75 CA4th 935, 940; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.16.)

 

PC 220(a)(1) - Assault With Intent To Commit Mayhem

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted mayhem (PC 633/203). California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.18.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.18.)

 

PC 220(a)(2) - Assault Of Minor With Intent To Commit Sex Offense

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt to commit designated sex offense. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.17.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.17.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Attempted sexual battery (PC 664/243.4) is not a necessarily included offense of assault to commit rape. (People v. Dixon (1999) 75 CA4th 935, 940; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.17.)

 

PC 220(b) - Assault With Intent To Commit Sex Offense During First Degree Burglary

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            First degree burglary (PC 459/460). (See People v. Dyser (2012) 202 CA4th 1015, 1020-21; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.19.)

 

b.           Assault with intent to commit underlying sex offense (PC 220(a)(1)). (See People v. Dyser (2012) 202 CA4th 1015, 1020-21; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.19.)

 

PC 236/PC 237 - Felony False Imprisonment

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663/236-237). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.50.)

 

b.            Misdemeanor false imprisonment (PC 236/PC 237). (People v. Hendrix (1992) 8 CA4th 1458, 1462-63 [force is not solely an element of felony false imprisonment, but both misdemeanor and felony false imprisonment. Thus, the misdemeanor becomes a felony when the force used is more than that needed to effect the restraint]; see also, People v. Babich (1993) 14 CA4th 801, 806-07; People v. Matian (1995) 35 CA4th 480, 484; People v. Peters UNPUBLISHED (C008103) [burglary conviction reversed for failure to instruct on misdemeanor false imprisonment as LIO of felony false imprisonment]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.50. The Peters opinion is available to FORECITE subscribers. Ask for Opinion Bank # O-110]; see also, People v. Johnson UNPUBLISHED (A062235) [felony false imprisonment (PC 236/PC 237) conviction reversed for failure to instruct on misdemeanor false imprisonment (PC 236) as lesser included offense].)

 

PC 236.1(a), (c) - Human Trafficking

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.67.)

 

PC 240 - Assault

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Any felonious assault includes the attempt to commit the felony (PC 664).  (People v. Christian (1894) 101 C 471, 474 [35 P 1043]; CJ 9.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526).)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery (PC 242).  (People v. McDaniels (02) 137 C 192, 193-94 [69 P 1006]; CJ 9.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526); People v. Colantuono (94) 7 C4th 206, 216 [26 CR2d 908]; People v. Delahoussaye (89) 213 CA3d 1, 9-10 [261 CR 287] citing People v. Jones (81) 119 CA3d 749, 754 [174 CR 218].)

 

PC 242 - Battery

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault (PC 240).  (People v. Yeats (77) 66 CA3d 874, 878 [136 CR 243]; People v. Lopez (75) 47 CA3d 8, 15 [120 CR 562].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Aggravated assault (if battery causing serious injury) (PC 245(a)).  (In re Ronnie N. (85) 174 CA3d 731, 735 [220 CR 365].)

 

PC 242/PC 243, PC 243(b), PC 243(c), PC 243.1 - Battery On Peace Officer, Firefighter, Custodial Officer, et al.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240.) (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.24.)

 

b.            Assault on peace officer (PC 241(c) [misdemeanor]). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.24.) 

 

c.            Assault (PC 245). (People v. Townshend (1971) 20 CA3d 688, 696-97 [PC 242/PC 243]; CJ 9.22 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527); but see People v. Corey (1978) 21 CA3d 738, 746 [simple assault as LIO of PC 242/PC 243; PC 243 does not apply to off-duty police working as private security guards].)

 

d.            Resisting arrest, delaying, or obstructing a police officer (PC 148) because issue is possibility of unreasonable force by the police officer (PC 148). (People v. Perkins (1970) 9 CA3d 1048, 1050-51 [88 CR 720]; People v. Olguin (81) 119 CA3d 39, 41 fn 2, 44, 45-46; CJ 9.22 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.24.)

 

e.           Simple assault or battery (PC 240/PC 242) if arrest is unlawful. (People v. Curtis (1969) 70 CA2d 347, 355-56; CJ 9.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.24.)

 

e.           Battery (PC 242). (People v. Townshend (1971) 20 CA3d 688, 696-97.)

 

f.           Battery against peace officer (PC 243(b) [misdemeanor]). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.24.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Reckless driving (VC 23103).  (People v. Hartfield (70) 11 CA3d 1073, 1079 [90 CR 274] [PC 242/PC 243]; CJ 9.22 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527).)

 

PC 243(c)(1) - Battery On A Custodial Officer With Injury.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery on a custodial officer (PC 243(b)). (People v. Wilkinson (2004) 33 C4th 821, 841.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

b.            Battery on a custodial officer (PC 243.1). (People v. Wilkinson (2004) 33 C4th 821, 841.)

 

PC 243(d) - Battery With Serious Bodily Injury.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.23.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.23.)

 

PC 243(e) - Battery On Former Spouse, Cohabitant, Etc.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery (PC 242).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.25.) 

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.25.)

 

PC 243.4(a), PC 243.4(b), PC 243.4(c), PC 243.4(d) - Sexual Battery

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Misdemeanor sexual battery (PC 243.4(d)).  In September 1989, the legislature added subdivision (d) to PC 243.4, creating a lesser included offense of misdemeanor battery, an offense lacking the element of “unlawful restraint.” Misdemeanor sexual battery is now (PC 243.4(e). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.96.)

 

b.           Simple assault (PC 240).  (People v. Alford (1991) 235 CA3d 799, 804-05; People v. Carapeli (1988) 201 CA3d 589, 595, fn 3; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.96.)

 

c.            Battery (PC 242).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.96.)

 

d.            Attempt (PC 663/243.4).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.96.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault by public officer under color of authority (PC 149).  (People v. Alford (91) 235 CA3d 799, 804-05 [286 CR 762].)

 

b.            Sexual battery (PC 243.4(e)(1)) not LIO of sexual battery by fraudulent representation (PC 243.4(c)). (People v. Babaali (2009) 171 CA4th 982, 998.)

 

c.            Misdemeanor sexual battery (PC243.4(e)) is not a lesser included offense of PC 243.4(c) (sexual battery by fraudulent representation). (People v. Babaali (2009) 171 CA4th 982, 994-99; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.96.)

 

PC 244.5(b) - Assault With Stun Gun Or Less Lethal Weapon

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.10.) 

 

PC 244.5(c) - Assault With Stun Gun Or Less Lethal Weapon On Peace Officer Or Firefighter

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.11.) 

 

b.            Assault with stun gun or less lethal weapon (PC 244.5(b).) (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.11.) 

 

c.            Assault on peace officer or firefighter (PC 241(c).) (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.11.) 

 

PC 245(a)(1), PC 245(a)(2) - Assault With A Deadly Weapon Or By Means Of Force Likely To Produce Great Bodily Injury Or With Firearm

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Simple assault (PC 240).  (People v. Rupert (71) 20 CA3d 961, 968-69 [98 CR 203]; People v. Grigsby (69) 275 CA2d 767, 775 [80 CR 294]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526); People v. Roth (64) 228 CA2d 522, 530-31 [39 CR 582].)

 

b.           Exhibiting a deadly weapon in violation of PC 417 as a lesser included offense of PC 245(a).  (People v. Carter (75) 48 CA3d 369, 371 [121 CR 677];  also People v. Fuentes (86) 183 CA3d 444, 446 [237 CR 465] [PC 417(a)(2) is LIO of PC 245(a)(2)], but see OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED below.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery (because the aggravated assault is complete upon the attempted use of force) (PC 242).  (People v. Yeats (77) 66 CA3d 874, 878-79 [136 CR 243]; People v. Mueller (56) 147 CA2d 233, 238-39 [305 P2d 178]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526); People v. Fuller (75) 53 CA3d 417, 421-22 [125 CR 837]; People v. Lathus (73) 35 CA3d 466, 471 [110 CR 921].)

 

b.            Assault by officer under color of authority (PC 149).  (People v. Lantz (53) 120 CA2d 787, 792 [262 P2d 19]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526).)

 

c.            Simple assault (PC 240) if weapon used.  (People v. Lesnick (87) 189 CA3d 637, 642-43 [234 CR 491]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526).)

 

d.            Exhibiting/brandishing gun in threatening manner (PC 417).  (People v. Torres (57) 151 CA2d 542, 544 [312 P 9]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526); (People v. Escarcega (74) 43 CA3d 391, 396-400 [117 CR 595] and cases cited therein [PC 245 can be committed without committing PC 417]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526); People v. Fuller (75) 53 CA3d 417, 422 [125 CR 837]; People v. Steele (2000) 83 CA4th 212 [99 CR2d 458].)

 

e.           Disturbing the peace and/or carrying a concealed weapon (PC 415/PC 12025).  (Martin v. Hall (71) 20 CA3d 414, 422 [97 CR 730]; CJ 9.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 526).)

 

f.             Battery on a police officer (PC 243).  (People v. Delahoussaye (89) 213 CA3d 1, 9-10 [261 CR 287].)

 

g.            Misdemeanor brandishing a replica gun (PC 417.2).  (People v. Moore (90) 224 CA3d 234, 237 [273 CR 680].)

 

h.            Assault by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury (In re Mosley (70) 1 C3d 913, 919 fn 5 [83 CR 809].)

 

PC 245(a)(1)-(2), (4) - Assault With Deadly Weapon Or Firearm, Or By Means Of Force Likely To Produce GBI

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.12.)

 

PC 245(a)(3), (b) - Assault With Semi-automatic Firearm, Machine Gun, Assault Weapon, or .50 BMG Rifle 

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             Simple assault (PC 240).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.14.) 

 

b.           Assault with firearm (PC 245(a)(2) is a lesser included offense of assault with a semiautomatic firearm. (PC 245(b)). (People v. Martinez (2012) 208 CA4th 197, 199; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.14.)

 

PC 245(c), PC 245(d)(1), PC 245.2, PC 245.3, PC 245.5(a), PC 245.5(b) - Assault With A Deadly Weapon Or Firearm, Or By Means Of Force Likely To Produce Great Bodily Injury On A Peace Officer, Firefighter, et al. (formerly PC 245(b), PC 245(c), PC 245.2, PC 245.3)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault with a deadly weapon (PC 245) where there is evidence the officer has ceased to be engaged in the performance of his duties. (People v. Hood (1969) 1 CA3d 444, 450; CJ 9.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.13.)

 

b.           Simple assault and brandishing (PC 240/PC 417). (People v. Hood (1969) 1 CA3d 444, 450; People v. Coffey (1967) 67 CA2d 204, 222; CJ 9.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.13.)

 

c.            Simple assault (PC 240) and/or ADW (PC 245) are lesser included offenses of assault with deadly weapon upon a police officer (PC 245(c), PC 245(d), PC 245.2, PC 245.3, PC 245.5(a) and PC 245.5(b)) and of assault with an assault weapon upon a police officer (PC 245(d)(2) and PC 245(d)(3)). [An unpublished opinion addressing this issue (People v. Foth UNPUBLISHED (C017387) is available to FORECITE subscribers. Ask for Opinion Bank # 0-199.]

 

d.            Battery (PC 242).  (People v. Townshend (1971) 20 CA3d 688, 696-97; but see, People v. Jones (1981) 119 CA3d 749, 754 [simple battery is not offense within charge of aggravated assault, but simple assault is]; CJ 9.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527).)

 

e.            Assault on peace officer, firefighter or parking control officer (PC 241(b)-(c)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.13.)

 

f.            Assault with a firearm is lesser included offense of assault with firearm on firefighter when firefighter not engaged in firefighting duties.  (People v. Bechler (98) 61 CA4th 373, 378 [71 CR2d 532].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Reckless driving (VC 23103).  (People v. Hartfield (70) 11 CA3d 1073, 1079-81 [90 CR 274]; CJ 9.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527).)

 

b.             Simple assault (PC 240) where toy gun used.  (People v. Vaiza (66) 244 CA2d 121, 124-25 [52 CR 733]; CJ 9.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 527).)

 

PC 245(d)(2)-(3)) - Assault With Semi-Automatic Firearm, Machine Gun, Assault Weapon, .50 BMG Rifle On Peace Officer, Etc.  

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.15.) 

 

b.            Assault with machine gun, etc. (PC 245(a)(3), (b)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.15.) 

 

c.            Assault on peace officer (PC 241(c). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.15.) 

 

WEAPONS OFFENSES - USE OFFENSES (PC 246, PC 246.3, PC 247, PC 417, PC 417.3, PC 417.8, PC 26100)

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            See possession offenses in California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.40.

 

b.           Brandishing a weapon (PC 417) is a lesser included offense of PC 417.3 (brandishing while in vehicle). (People v. Howard (2002) 100 CA4th 94, 99-100; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.41.)

 

c.            Grossly negligent discharge of firearm (PC 246.3) is a lesser included offense of discharging firearm at an occupied building (PC 246). (People v. Ramirez (2009) 45 CA4th 980, 984-990; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.41.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault with firearm (PC 245(a)(2)) is not a lesser included offense of discharging a firearm from a vehicle (PC 26100(c)). (People v. Lucas (2007) 41 CA4th 362, 366-371; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.41.)

 

b.           Assault with deadly weapon is not a lesser necessarily included offense of PC 246. (In re Daniel R. (1993) 20 CA4th 239, 247; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.41.)

 

PC 246 - Shooting At Occupied Dwelling/Vehicle

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Local city ordinance, if the accusatory pleading charges the offense of shooting at an inhabited dwelling in such a way as to encompass all of the elements of the local ordinance (i.e., that the gun was discharged within the city limits).  (People v. Moore (83) 143 CA3d 1059, 1067 [192 CR 374].)

b.            Grossly negligent discharge of a firearm (PC 246.3) is LIO of discharging a firearm at an occupied building (PC 246). (People v. Ramirez (2009) 45 CA4th 980, 985-86; People v. Overman (2005) 126 CA4th 1344, 1351, 1358; People v. Singer UNPUB (7/4/2011, B220115) 2011 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 5255, 32-33.)

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Local city ordinance forbidding discharge of firearm within city limits.  (People v. Moore (83) 143 CA3d 1059, 1067 [192 CR 374] [because extra element of discharging firearm within city limits requires proof of extra element so it cannot be an LIO].)

 

b.            Assault with deadly weapon (PC 245(a)(1)).  (In re Daniel R. (93) 20 CA4th 239, 247 [24 CR 414].)

 

c.            Disturbing the peace (PC 415).  (Martin v. Hall (71) 20 CA3d 414, 422 [97 CR 730].)

 

PC 261(a)(2)/PC 664 - Attempted Forcible Rape.

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Assault with intent to commit rape (PC 220). (People v. Vasquez REV GTD/DISD/DEPUB (2006) 136 CA4th 898.)

 

PC 261(a)(4) - Rape Of An Unconscious Person

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple battery (PC 242) not a lesser included of rape of an unconscious person. (People v. Hernandez (2011) 200 CA4th 1000 [unconscious person could be raped within meaning of PC 261(a)(4) without having been subject to force or violence, or even to a harmful or offensive touching]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.93.)

 

PC 261(2)/PC 264.1 - Forcible Rape

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault with intent to commit rape (PC 220). (People v. Ghent (87) 43 C3d 739, 756 [239 CR 32]; People v. Smith (61) 195 CA2d 735, 738-39 [16 CR 12]; People v. Moran (73) 33 CA3d 724, 730 [109 CR 287]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530); In re Jose M. (94) 21 CA4th 1470, 1476-77 [27 CR 55].)

 

b.            Assault (PC 240).  (People v. Ghent (87) 43 C3d 739, 757 [239 CR 82]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530); In re Jose M. (94) 21 CA4th 1470, 1476-77 [27 CR 55].)

 

c.            Battery (PC 242).  (People v. Gutierrez (91) 232 CA3d 1624, 1636 [284 CR 230] citing People v. Lema (87) 188 CA3d 1541, 1545 [234 CR 173]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530).)

 

d.            Unlawful sexual intercourse if minority shown (PC 261.5).  (People v. Collins (60) 54 C2d 57, 59-60 [4 CR 158]; People v. Ross (65) 234 CA2d 758, 765 [44 CR 722]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530).)

 

e.             Incest if incestuous relationship shown (PC 285).   (People v. Daniels (69) 1 CA3d 367, 378 [81 CR 675]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530).)

 

f.             Attempted rape (PC 664/PC 261).  (People v. Garcia (85) 166 CA3d 1056, 1067-69 [212 CR 822]; People v. Ramirez (69) 2 CA3d 345, 353 [82 CR 665].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Unlawful oral copulation by force or threats (PC 288a).  (People v. Smith (71) 22 CA3d 197, 203 [99 CR 192]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530).)

 

b.           Assault (PC 240) and battery (PC 242) not committed during the commission of the rape.  (People v. Lema (87) 188 CA3d 1541, 1544-45 [234 CR 173]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530).)

 

c.            Lewd act with child under 14 Years (PC 288(a)).  (People v. Willoughby (85) 164 CA3d 1054, 1068 [210 CR 880]; CJ 10.00, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 530).)  Lewd act on a child (PC 288(b) not a lesser included offense of rape (PC 261(2)).  (People v. Stansbury (93) 4 C4th 1017, 1069 [17 CR 2d 174] citing People v. Griffin (88) 46 C3d 1011, 1030 [251 CR 643].)

 

d.           Sexual battery (PC 243.4).  (In re Alberto S. (91) 226 CA3d 1459, 1465 [277 CR 475] citing People v. Delahoussaye (89) 213 CA3d 1, 13 [261 CR 287].)

 

e.           Unlawful sexual intercourse with a female less than 18 years of age (PC 261.5).  (People v. Chapman (75) 47 CA3d 597 [121 CR 315; People v. Gutierrez (82) 137 CA3d 542, 547-48 [187 CR 130]; People v. Montero (86) 185 CA3d 415, 433 [229 CR 750].)

 

f.            Contributing to delinquency of minor (PC 272).  (In re Hess (55) 45 C2d 171, 173-74 [288 P2d 5].)

 

g.           Battery (People v. Marshall (97) 15 C4th 1, 38-39 [61 CR2d 84] [battery not LIO of attempted forcible rape].)

 

PC 261.5 - Unlawful Sexual Intercourse

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Lewd act with child if victim under 14 (PC 288).  (People v. Stampher (59) 168 CA2d 579, 580-81 [336 P2d 207]; CJ 10.40 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532).)

 

b.            Assault with intent to commit rape.  (People v. Babcock (11) 160 C 537, 539 [117 P 549].)

 

c.            Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.98.)

 

d.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.98.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Contributing to the delinquency of a minor (PC 272).  (People v. Bobb (89) 207 CA3d 88, 88, 92-96 [254 CR 707].  The Bobb court held that the ‘75 amendment to section WI 601 changed the definition of contributing so that it is not longer a LIO of  PC 261.5; earlier case to the contrary, People v. Norris (67) 254 CA2d 296, 299-301 [62 CR 66].)

 

PC 264.1 - Rape Acting In Concert

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Assault (PC 240) and assault with intent to commit rape (PC 220).  (In re Jose M. (94) 21 CA4th 1470, 1476-77 [27 CR2d 55].)

 

PC 266i - Pandering

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Attempt (PC 663/266i). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.78.)

 

b.            Contributing to the delinquency of a minor (PC 272) if minority is factually pleaded.  (People v. Mathis (85) 173 CA3d 1251, 1257 [219 CR 693]; CJ 10.71 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 533).)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Aiding and abetting an act of prostitution (PC 647(b)).  (People v. Mathis (85) 173 CA3d 1251, 1254-56 [219 CR 693].)

 

PC 266h(a) - Pimping

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Aiding a prostitute (PC 653.23). (See People v. Futrell DEPUBLISHED (2003) 114 CA4th 30.)

 

PC 269(a) - Aggravated Sexual Assault Of Child

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instructions Handbook (2013) (CJER) § 2.20.)

b.          Pandering (PC 266i). (People v. Zambia (2011) 51 C4th 965, 971; see also 2 Witkin & Epstein, Cal. Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Sex Offenses and Crimes Against Decency, § 70, p. 382 [“[T]he crime of pandering, as defined by PC 266i, is distinct from that of pimping [citation].”].)

 

PC 273a(1) - Child Abuse/Neglect/Endangerment Felony

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Child abuse/neglect/endangerment misdemeanor (PC 273a(2)).  (People v. Sheffield (85) 168 CA3d 158, 166-67 [214 CR 40]; CJ 9.37 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); People v. Johnson UNPUBLISHED (AO62235) [felony child endangerment (PC 273a(1)) reversed for failure to instruct on misdemeanor child endangerment].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Cruel or inhuman corporal punishment causing injury (People v. Sheffield (85) 168 CA3d 158, 163, 166-67 [214 CR 40] [neither PC 273d or PC 273a(1) are LIOs of each other].) 

 

PC 273ab - Assault On Child Under Eight Resulting In Death or Comatose Or Paralytic Condition 

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.21.) 

 

b.            Assault by means of force likely to produce GBI (PC 245(a)(1)). (See People v. Basuta (2001) 94 CA4th 370, 391-92 [PC 245 is LIO of PC 273ab]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.21.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Involuntary manslaughter (PC 192(b)) is not a lesser included offense of assault on a child under eight (PC 273ab).  (See Orlina v. Superior Court (1999) 73 CA4th 258; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.21.)

 

b.            Second degree felony murder.  (People v. Stewart (2000) 77 CA4th 785 [91 CR2d 888] [second degree felony murder is not a lesser included offense of PC 273ab].)

 

PC 273d - Child Beating

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Battery (PC 242). (People v. Stewart (1961) 188 CA2d 88, 90; CJ 9.36 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.)

 

b.           Misdemeanor child beating (PC 273a) is LIO of felony child beating. (People v. Roman (1967) 256 CA2d 656, 661-62; but see California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31 [causing a child to suffer (PC 173a [either felony or misdemeanor] is not necessarily a lesser included offense of felony infliction of injury on a child (PC 273d); People v. Moussabeck (2007) 157 CA4th 975, 981-82.)

 

PC 273.5 - Spouse Or Cohabitant Beating

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240, PC 241(a)).  (People v. Van Os (1950) 96 CA2d 204, 205-06; CJ 9.35 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 528); California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.)

 

c.            Misdemeanor battery (PC 242, PC 243(a)).  (People v. Gutierrez (1985) 171 CA3d 944, 952 citing People v. Stewart (1961) 188 CA2d 88, 90; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.)

 

d.            Misdemeanor cohabitant battery (PC 243(e)(1)).  (People v. Jackson (2000) 77 CA4th 574; People v. Babich (1993) 14 CA4th 801, 807; see also People v. Lohbauer (1981) 29 CA3d 364, 369; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.31.) [An unpublished opinion and additional briefing on this issue is available to FORECITE subscribers. Ask for Opinion Bank # 0-238.]

 

PC 274 - Abortion

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Attempted abortion (PC 664/PC 274).  (In re Bandmann (58) 51 C2d 388, 396 [333 P2d 331].)

 

PC 278.5 - Child Detention

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Contempt (PC 166(a)(4)).  (People v. Moses (96) 43 CA4th 462 [50 CR2d 665].)

 

PC 285 - Incest

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Rape.  (People v. Jarrett (70) 6 CA3d 737, 740 [86 CR 15].) 

 

b.            Attempted rape.  (People v. Jarrett (70) 6 CA3d 737, 740 [86 CR 15].) 

 

PC 286 - Unlawful Sodomy

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted sodomy (PC 663, PC 286).  (People v. Vanderbilt (1926) 199 C 461, 464; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.97.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.97.)

 

c.            Battery (PC 242).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.97.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             LeLewd conduct/lewd act with child (PC 288(a).  (People v. Pearson (86) 42 C3d 351, 354-55 [228 CR 509]; CJ 10.20, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 531).)

 

b.            Simple assault (unless by force) (PC 240).  (People v. Blagg (68) 267 CA2d 598, 610 [73 CR 93]; CJ 10.20, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 531).)

 

c.            Disorderly conduct (PC 647(a)).  (People v. Madden (81) 116 CA3d 212, 221 [171 CR 897]; CJ 10.20, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 531).)

 

d.           Forcible lewd conduct (PC 288).  (People v. Montero (86) 185 CA3d 415, 433 [229 CR 750] [lewd conduct (PC 288(a)) not LIO of sodomy (PC 288(c)) because lewd conduct requires specific intent whereas statutory sodomy is a general intent crime, citing People v. Pearson (86) 42 C3d 351, 355-56 [228 CR 509].)

 

PC 286(b)(1) and PC 286(b)(2) - Unlawful Sodomy With A Person Under Eighteen Years/Sixteen Years

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Contributing to the delinquency of a minor (PC 272) if separate acts.  (People v. Tenner (44) 67 CA2d 360, 365-66 [154 P2d 9]; CJ 10.47, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 533).)

 

b.            Lewd conduct (PC 288(a)).  (People v. Montero (86) 185 CA3d 415, 433 [229 CR 750] [lewd conduct (PC 288(a)) not LIO of sodomy (PC 288(c)) because lewd conduct requires specific intent whereas statutory sodomy is a general intent crime, citing People v. Pearson (86) 42 C3d 351, 355-56 [228 CR 509].)

 

PC 288 - Lewd Or Lascivious Acts With Children Or Dependent Person

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663, PC 288). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.91.)

   

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.91.)

 

            c.            Battery (PC 242). Court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on the lesser included offense of battery when the evidence shows that the defendant touched a child in a nonsexual way but in a way that would have been offensive to the child. (People v. Thomas (2007) 146 CA4th 1278, 1294; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.91.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Contributing to the delinquency of a minor is not a lesser included offense of lewd and lascivious conduct (PC 288). (People v. Vincze (1992) 8 CA4th 1159, 1162; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.91.)

 

PC 288(a) - Lewd Act With Child Under 14 Years (Non-Forcible)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Unlawful sexual intercourse (PC 261.5) if intercourse shown.  (People v. Greer (47) 30 C2d 589, 603, 604 [184 P2d 512]; People v. Toliver (69) 270 CA2d 492, 497-98 [75 CR 819]; CJ 10.41 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532); People v. Ross (65) 234 CA2d 758, 766 [44 CR 722].)

 

b.            Unlawful oral copulation if single act is shown by the evidence (PC 288a). (People v. Cline (69) 2 CA3d 989, 996-97 [83 CR 246]; CJ 10.41 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532).) 

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED 

 

a.             Misdemeanor child molestation (PC 647a [amended and renumbered PC 647.6]). People v. Lopez (98) 19 C4th 282 [79 CR2d 195] 

 

b.            Unlawful sodomy if a separate act (PC 286).  (People v. Hicks (65) 63 C2d 764, 766 [48 CR 139]; CJ 10.41 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532); see also, People v. Gordon (85) 165 CA3d 839, 863-64 [212 CR 174] [sodomy not LIO of PC 288(a)].) 

 

c.            Unlawful oral copulation if a separate act (PC 288a).  (People v. Slobodion (48) 31 C2d 555, 561-63 [191 P2d 1]; CJ 10.41 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532).)

 

d.             Breach of peace (PC 415).  (People v. Piccionelli (59) 175 CA2d 391, 394-95 [246 P2d 542]; CJ 10.41 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532).) 

 

e.             Contributing to the delinquency of a minor (PC 272).  (People v. Vincze (92) 8 CA4th 1159, 1164 [11 CR2d 430]; People v. Bobb (89) 207 CA3d 88 [254 CR 707] [declining to follow Greer because its reasoning is no longer valid after the 1975 amendment to WI 601].) 

 

f.             Attempted sodomy is not LIO of lewd conduct (PC 288(a)). (People v. Gordon(85) 165 CA3d 839, 863 [212 CR 174] citing People v. Nicholson (79) 98 CA3d 617, 623-24 [159 CR 766].) 

 

g.           Unlawful sexual intercourse is not LIO of PC 288(a).  (People v. Gordon (85) 165 CA3d 839, 865 [212 CR 174].)

 

PC 288(b) - Lewd Act With Child Under 14 Years -- Force Or Fear

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Lewd act with child under 14 years (PC 288(a)).  (People v. Ward (86) 188 CA3d 459, 470-72 [233 CR 477]; CJ 10.42 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532); but see People v. Sanchez (89) 208 CA3d 721, 748-49 [256 CR 446] [PC 288(a) not a LIO of PC 288(b) if there are different acts involved]; see also, People v. Pitts (90) 223 CA3d 606, 883-84 [273 CR 757].)

 

b.            Forcible rape (PC 261).  (People v. Osuna (84) 161 CA3d 429, 434 [207 CR 641].)

 

c.            Misdemeanor child molestation (PC 647a).  (People v. Gordon (85) 165 CA3d 839, 864 [212 CR 174].)

 

d.            Lewd touching without force (PC 288(a)).  (People v. Saldivar UNPUBLISHED (F029214).)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Non-forcible lewd acts where no evidence of “non-force” and not relied upon as defense (PC 288(a)).  (People v. Pitts (90) 223 CA3d 606, 883-84 [273 CR 757].)

 

b.            Forcible rape (PC 261).  (People v. Montero (86) 185 CA3d 415, 433 [229 CR 750].)

 

c.            Unlawful sexual intercourse (PC 261.5).  (People v. Gordon (85) 165 CA3d 839, 862-63 [212 CR 274].)

 

d.            Sodomy (PC 286).  (People v. Gordon (85) 165 CA3d 839, 862-63 [212 CR 274].)

 

e.            Attempted sodomy (PC 286/PC 664).  (People v. Gordon (85) 165 CA3d 839, 863 [212 CR 274].)

 

PC 288a - Unlawful Oral Copulation

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted oral copulation (PC 663/288a). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.92.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.92.)

 

c.            Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.92.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Soliciting/engaging in lewd conduct (PC 647(a)) as PC 288a can be committed any place, public or private.  (People v. Hensel (65) 233 CA2d 834, 838-39 [43 CR 865]; People v. Butterfield (68) 258 CA2d 586, 593-94 [65 CR 765]; CJ 10.10, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 531).)

 

b.            Rape (PC 261).  (People v. Armstrong (68) 268 CA2d 324, 326-27 [74 CR 37]; CJ 10.10, et seq. (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 531).)

 

c.            Sexual battery (PC 243.4).  (People v. Muniz (89) 213 CA3d 1508, 1516-17 [262 CR 743]; see also, People v. Marshall DEPUBLISHED (89) 213 CA3d 1113 [262 CR 152] [battery and misdemeanor child molestation are not included within PC 288(a)].)

 

PC 288a(b)(1) & PC 288a(b)(2) - Unlawful Oral Copulation With Person Under 18, 16 Years

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Contributing to the delinquency of a minor (PC 272).  (People v. Butterfield (68) 258 CA2d 586, 593-94 [65 CR 765]; People v. Kennedy (55) 133 CA2d 693, 694 [284 P2d 898]; CJ 10.45 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 532).)

 

b.          Lewd act with child if separate acts are shown (PC 288).  (People v. Slobodion (48) 31 C2d 555, 561-63 [191 P2d 1].)

 

PC 288(c)(1) - Lewd Or Lascivious Acts Involving Children

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663, PC 288). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2007) § 2.75.)

   

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2007) § 2.75.)span>

 

            c.            Battery (PC 242). People v. Thomasspan> (2007) 146 CA4th 1278: Trial court erred in not instructing sua sponte on battery as a lesser included (LIO) of lewd acts charged under PC 288(c)(1). (Compare People v. Santos (90) 222 CA3d 723, 739 [battery is not a lesser included offense of lewd acts, but the issue in Santos was whether battery was a lesser related offense in the facts of that case].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.          Contributing to the delinquency of a minor is not a lesser included offense of lewd and lascivious conduct (PC 288). (People v. Vincze (1992) 8 CA4th 1159, 1162; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2007) § 2.75.)

 

PC 288.2(a), (b) - Harmful Matter Sent With Intent To Seduce Minor

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

c.            Distribution of harmful matter to minor (PC 313(a)) is lesser included offense of PC 288.2(b). (People v. Jensen (2003) 114 CA4th 224, 243-45; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.90.)

 

PC 288.2(a), (b) - Harmful Matter Sent With Intent To Seduce Minor

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Distribution of harmful matter to minor (PC 313(a) is lesser included offense of PC 288.2(b). (People v. Jensen (2003) 114 CA4th 224, 243-45; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.90.)

 

PC 288.2(b) - Harmful Matter To Minor

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Distribution of harmful matter (PC 313.1). (See People v. Jensen (2003) 114 CA4th 224, 244.)

 

PC 288.5(a) - Continuous Sexual Abuse Of A Child

 

NOTE:                 See California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.89 [unanimity instruction need not be given along with other instructions on violation of PC 288.5 [multiple acts of resident child molester] nor need the judge instruct sua sponte on PC 288 because PC 288 is not a lesser included offense of PC 288.5. (People v. Avina (1993) 14 CA4th 1303, 1313; People v. Palmer (2001) 86 CA4th 440, 445 [continuous sexual abuse does not necessarily require specific intent, while lewd and lascivious conduct always does].)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             The underlying felonies.  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.89.) 

 

b.             Attempts of the underlying felonies. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.89.) 

 

c.             Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.89.)

 

d.             Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.89.)

 

PC 288.7 - Sexual Acts With Child 10 Years Old Or Younger

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             Attempt (PC 663/288.7). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.95.) 

 

b.             Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.95.) 

 

c.             Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.95.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Lewd act with child (PC 288).  (People v. Avina (93) 14 CA4th 1303, 1313-14 [18 CR2d 511]; People v. Valdez (94) 23 CA4th 46, 48 [28 CR2d 236] [individual crimes proscribed by PC 288 are not necessarily lesser included offenses of PC 288.5.)

 

PC 289, 264.1 - Sexual Penetration

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED
 

a.            Attempt (PC 663/289). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.93.)

 

b.            Simple assault (PC 240). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.93.)

 

c.            Battery (PC 242). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.93.)

 

d.            Sexual battery (PC 243.4).  (People v. Vu DEPUBLISHED (2002) 2002 DAR 6185, 2002 CDOS 4889; but see People v. Keeney (1994) 24 CA4th 886, 888-89 dicta; People v. Young DEPUBLISHED (1992) 9 CA4th 1791, 1793-97 [12 CR2d 318].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED
 

a.            Assault with intent to commit rape under PC 220(a) is not a lesser included offense of sexual penetration under PC 289(f). (People v. Leal (2009) 180 CA4th 782, 293; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.93.)

 

PC 311.1(a), 311.2(b)-(d) - Distributing Obscene Matter Showing Sexual Conduct By A Minor

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             Attempted distribution of obscene matter (PC 664/311.1(a), 311.2(c)(d)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.32.)

 

b.            Attempted distribution of obscene matter for commercial consideration (PC 664/311.2(b)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.32.)

 

PC 311.11 - Possessing Matter Depicting Sexual Conduct Of A Minor

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.33.)

 

PC 314 - Indecent Exposure, Felony

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             Attempt (PC 663/314).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.68.)

 

b.             Misdemeanor indecent exposure (PC 314).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.68.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Disorderly conduct (PC 647(a)) if not in public place. (People v. Tolliver (80) 108 CA3d 171, 173-74 [166 CR 328]; CJ 16.220 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 538).)

 

b.            Lewd conduct (PC 647(a)).  (People v. Meeker (89) 208 CA3d 358, 361-62 [256 CR 79].  Earlier cases to the contrary: People v. Curry (77) 76 CA3d 181, 184 [142 CR 649] and People v. Swearington (77) 71 CA3d 935, 944 [140 CR 5] [not persuasive because they predate Pryor v. Muni. Ct. (79) 25 C3d 238, 256 [158 CR 599], which defined elements of lewd conduct].)

 

PC 314.1 - Indecent Exposure With Unlawful Entry

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Burglary (PC 459).  (People v. Rehmeyer (93) 19 CA4th 1758, 1768 [24 CR2d 321].)

 

PC 368(b)(1)/ PC 273a(a) - Child, Elder Or Dependent Adult Abuse, Neglect Or Endangerment.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.             Attempt (PC 663).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.30.)

 

b.           Misdemeanor child or elder abuse (PC 273a(b), PC 368(c)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.30.) [NOTE: The court must instruct sua sponte on misdemeanor elder abuse as a lesser included offense of felony elder abuse when there is evidence that the abuse was not likely to produce great bodily harm or death. (People v. Racy (2007) 148 CA4th 1327, 1334-35.]

 

c.            Failure to prevent abuse  (PC 368(b), PC 368(c)).  (People v. Heitzman (1994) 9 CA4th 189, 212; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.30.)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanors of rout, unlawful assembly,  remaining present at place of riot or rout, and breach of peace (PC 406, PC 407, PC 409).  (People v. Patino (79) 95 CA3d 11, 23 [156 CR 815].)

 

PC 399, PC 399.5(a) - Dog Or Mischievous Animal Attack

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.45.)

 

PC 404(a), 404.6, 4573.6, 4573.8, 4573.9, 4574 - Prison Offenses

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple assault (PC 240) is lesser included offense of PC 4500, 4501 and 4501.5. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.81.)

 

b.            Simple battery (PC 242) is a lesser included offense of PC 4501.5. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.81.)

 

c.            Aggravated assault (PC 245(a)(1) is a lesser included offense of PC 4500 and 4501. (People v. Milward (2011) 52 CA4th 580, 585-589; People v. Noah (1971) 5 CA3d 469, 478-479; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.81.)

 

d.            Battery by prisoner on a nonprisoner (PC 4501.5) is a necessarily included offense of battery by gassing (PC 4501.1). (People v. Flores (1009) 176 CA4th 924; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.81.)

 

e.            Attempt to bring/send weapon into prison/jail is lesser included offense of PC 4574 (PC 664/4574). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.81.)

 

PC 405a - Lynching

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanors of rout, unlawful assembly,  remaining present at place of riot or rout, and breach of peace (PC 406, PC 407, PC 409).  (People v. Patino (79) 95 CA3d 11, 23 [156 CR 815].)

 

PC 417.3 - Felony Brandishing In Presence Of Motor Vehicle Occupant

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor brandishing (PC 417(a)(2)).  (People v. Miller DEPUBLISHED (91) 2 CA4th 64, 74-75 [2 CR2d 838]; see also, People v. Lara (96) 43 CA4th 1560, 1568 [51 CR2d 349] [assuming arguendo that misdemeanor brandishing is lesser included offense].)  [A copy of the Miller opinion is available to FORECITE subscribers.  Ask for Opinion Bank # O-116.]

 

PC 417.8 - Brandishing Weapon To Prevent Arrest

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Resisting arrest (PC 148(a)).  (People v. Simons (96) 42 CA4th 1100, 1108 [50 CR2d 351].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

b.            Simple brandishing.  (People v. Pruett (97) 57 CA4th 77, 88 [66 CR2d 750].)

 

PC 422 - Criminal Threats

 

                OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Threat against a public officer of an educational institution (PC 71) may be a lesser included offense of PC 422 under the accusatory pleading test (In re Marcus T. (2001) 89 CA4th 468, 472-74), but not under the statutory elements test (People v. Chaney (2005) 131 CA4th 253 [PC 71 is not LIO of PC 422]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) §2.102).

 

b.            Attempted criminal threat. (People v. Toledo (2001) 26 CA4th 221; see also California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) §2.102 [“in order to find an attempted criminal threat the just must be instructed that the victim could have reasonably experienced sustained fear under the circumstances,” citing to People v. Jackson (2009) 178 CA4th 590, 599.)

 

PC 424, 425 - Misappropriation Of Public Funds

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) §2.76; but see People v. Vallerga (1977) 67 CA3d 847, 787-881 [public officers accepting a gratuity (PC 70) might be a lesser included offense, depending on accusation].)

 

PC 451/PC 452 - Arson

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Unlawfully causing a fire (PC 452).  (People v. Mendoza (2000) 24 C4th 130, 175; People v. Cole (2004) 33 C4th 1158, 1218; People v. Schwartz (92) 2 CA4th 1319, 1324-25 [3 CR2d 816] [unlawfully causing fire to structure may be lesser included offense to arson of a structure]; In re Stonewall F. (89) 208 CA3d 1054, 1067-68 [256 CR 578]; People v. Hooper (86) 181 CA3d 1174, 1182 [226 CR 810] [unlawfully causing fire to structure may be lesser included offense to arson of a structure]; CJ 14.80, et seq (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Burning insured property to defraud the insurer (PC 548).  (People v. Zelver (55) 135 CA2d 226, 236 [287 P2d 183]; CJ 14.80 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 538).)

 

PC 459 - Burglary

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Tampering with vehicle where charge is vehicular burglary (VC 10852).  (People v. Mooney (83) 145 CA3d 502, 504-06 [193 CR 381; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 536.)

 

b.            Attempted burglary.  (People v. Aguilar (89) 214 CA3d 1434, 1436 [263 CR 314] citing People v. Lowen (1895) 109 C 381, 384 [42 P 32]; People v. Kallan UNPUBLISHED (A065475) [burglary conviction (PC 459) reversed for failure to instruct on attempted burglary].)

 

c.           Lesser included misdemeanors.  When burglary is predicated upon an intent to commit an offense for which there is a lesser included misdemeanor, failure to instruct upon the misdemeanor (except theft) may be reversible error because burglary requires an intent to commit a felony or theft.  (People v. Peters UNPUBLISHED (C008103) [burglary conviction reversed for failure to instruct on misdemeanor false imprisonment as a LIO of felony false imprisonment].)  [The Peters opinion is available to FORECITE subscribers.  Ask for Opinion Bank #O-110.]

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Robbery and assault with a deadly weapon (PC 211, PC 245) when separate acts.  (People v. White (53) 115 CA2d 828, 832 [253 P2d 108]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

b.            Any offense not the objective of the burglary.  (People v. Failla (66) 64 C2d 560, 570-71 [51 CR 103]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

c.            Grand theft (PC 487).  (People v. Hamilton (67) 251 CA2d 506, 510 [59 CR 459]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

d.            Larceny (PC 484).  (People v. Bernal (94) 22 CA4th 1455, 1458 [27 CR2d 839] [theft not LIO of burglary].)

 

e.            Receiving stolen property (PC 496).  (People v. Tyler (68) 258 CA2d 661, 667 [65 CR 907] [theft-related offense]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537); (In re Christopher S. (85) 174 CA3d 620, 623-24 [220 CR 214]; People v. Stewart (86) 185 CA3d 197, 203-08 [229 CR 445] [but can’t be convicted of both if property received is same as taken in burglary]; People v. Hall (85) 168 CA3d 624, 626 [214 CR 289].)

 

f.            Trespass (PC 602(j) or PC 602(l)).  (People v. Lopez (67) 249 CA2d 93, 102-03 [57 CR 441]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537); People v. Wright (69) 272 CA2d 53, 57 [76 CR 859]; also People v. Harper (69) 269 CA2d 221, 222-23 [74 CR 859] [PC 602(l) is not a lesser included offense of burglary since burglar does not have the intent to occupy]; also People v. Harris (61) 191 CA2d 754 [12 CR 916] [criminal trespass PC 602(j) not a lesser included offense to burglary, even though the burglary charge alleged the specific intent to commit theft.  The intent to steal in theft did not necessarily include the intent to injure property or to injure the business carried on by the possessor].)

 

g.           Trespass/entry of a dwelling without consent (unauthorized entry) (PC 602.5).  (People v. Pendleton (79) 25 C3d 371, 381-82 [158 CR 343]; People v. Lohbauer (81) 29 C3d 364, 369-73 [173 CR 453]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537); People v. Wetmore (78) 22 C3d 318, 327 [149 CR 265]; but see In re Hurwitz (76) 17 C3d 562 [131 CR 402] [defendant indicted for burglary, found guilty of PC 602.5]; (People v. Almarez (85) 168 CA3d 262, 266 [214 CR 105].)

 

h.            Disorderly conduct or loitering (PC 647(g)).  (People v. Lopez (67) 249 CA2d 93, 102-03 [57 CR 441]; CJ 14.50 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

i.             Attempted burglary (PC 459/PC 664) when the defendant’s hand actually extended inside the building.  (People v. Aguilar (89) 214 CA3d 1434, 1435-36 [263 CR 314].)

 

j.             Neither trespass nor vandalism is LIO of burglary if not supported by the evidence.  (People v. Delgado (89) 210 CA3d 458, 460 [258 CR 365].)

 

PC 470 - Forgery By False Signature Or Counterfeiting

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of a fraudulently altered driver’s license (VC 14610).  People v. Johnson DEPUBLISHED (98) 58 CA4th 482 [68 CR2d 336].  (See FORECITE F 15.00 n2.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Petty theft; obtaining property by false pretense.  (People v. Parrott (59) 174 CA2d 301, 303-04 [344 P2d 643]; CJ 15.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 538).)

 

b.           Filing forged instrument (PC 115); offering forged evidence (PC 132); preparing forged instrument for trial (PC 134).  (In re Horowitz (49) 33 C2d 534, 541-45 [203 P2d 513]; CJ 15.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 538).)

 

PC 470 - Forgery

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted forgery (PC 663/470). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.52.)

 

b.            Credit card forgery if the evidence supports (PC 484f).  (People v. Liberto (69) 274 CA2d 460, 463 [79 CR 306].)

 

c.            Possession of completed check with intent to defraud (PC 475a).  (People v. Reisdorff (71) 17 CA3d 675, 679 [95 CR 224].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Theft by false pretenses (PC 484).  (People v. Parrott (59) 174 CA2d 301, 303-04 [344 P2d 643].)

 

b.            Passing fictitious instrument (PC 476).  (In re Lamey (48) 85 CA2d 284, 288-89 [193 P2d 66]; People v. Bonner UNPUBLISHED (F029357) [PC 470 conviction reversed where evidence satisfied PC 476 but not PC 470].)

 

PC 470b - Possession Of False Identification

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of a fraudulently altered driver’s license (VC 14610).  People v. Johnson DEPUBLISHED (98) 58 CA4th 482 [68 CR2d 336].

 

PC 475 - Possession Of Forged Or Unfinished Instrument With Intent To Defraud

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.53.)

 

PC 476a - Uttering A Forged Check With Intent To Defraud (Insufficient Funds)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of completed check with intent to defraud (PC 475a).  (People v. Reisdorff (71) 17 CA3d 675, 679.)

 

b.            Theft (PC 484).  (See California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.29 [PC 484 may, but need not, be included. PC 476a complete when check issued with intent to defraud. Loss or detriment, required in offense of theft, is not required in PC 476a offense].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Grand theft of property acquired with check.  (People v. Freedman (52) 111 CA2d 611, 614 [245 P2d 45]; CJ 15.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 538).)

 

b.            Petty theft (PC 484).  (People v. Martin (62) 208 CA2d 867, 876 [25 CR 610].)

 

PC 487 - Theft By Larceny

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Burglary (PC 459).  (People v. McFarlane (03) 138 C 481, 484 [71 P 568]; CJ 14.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535).)

 

b.            Receiving stolen property (PC 496).  (In re Christopher S. (85) 174 CA3d 620, 622-24 [220 CR 214] [theft-related burglary case, and cases cited therein].)

 

PC 487 et seq./ PC 488 - Grand And Petty Theft

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Petty theft (PC 486).  (Gomez v. Superior Court (58) 50 C2d 640, 643-48 [328 P2d 976]; CJ 14.20 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535); People v. Shoaff (93) 16 CA4th 1112, 1116 [20 CR 2d 464]; People v. Crain (67) 255 CA2d 726, 726 [63 CR 494].)

 

b.           Attempted theft by false pretenses (PC 484.).  (People v. Mann DEPUBLISHED (93) 20 CA4th 171, 176 [25 CR 179] [defendant fraudulently attempted to obtain a refund for merchandise claiming that it was purchased].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Burglary.  (People v. McFarlane (03) 138 C 481, 484 [71 P 568]; CJ 14.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535).)

 

PC 484, PC 486, PC 487 - Grand And Petty Theft (When Property Is Taken From The Person)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Petty theft (PC 486).  (People v. McElroy (1897) 116 C 583, 587 [48 P 718]; CJ 14.23 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535).)

 

PC 484, PC 486, PC 487 - Grand and Petty Theft (Theft of Specified Property (Code section depends on specified property))

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Altering brand in cattle theft (PC 487a).  (People v. Kerrick (04) 144 C 46, 47-48 [77 P 711]; CJ 14.24 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535).)

 

b.            Petty theft in sheep theft (PC 487a).  (People v. Piazza (53) 115 CA2d 811, 814-15 [252 P2d 947];  CJ 14.24 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 536).)  Petty theft is not a lesser included of grand theft, even in case where animal is alleged to be worth less than $400.  (See also, People v. Thomas (74) 43 CA3d 862, 870 [118 CR 226] [The Legislature in PC 487 has clearly defined the theft of items such as automobiles, firearms, and certain farm animals as grand theft, regardless of the value of the item taken and the trial court properly refused defendant’s instruction on a lesser and included offense].)

 

c.            Grand Theft of Library Books.  Detention of library books (Educ. Code 19911, formerly Educ. Code 28802) is not a lesser included offense.  (People v. Cohen (76) 59 CA3d 241, 247-48 [130 CR 656].)

 

PC 487 - Grand Theft (Sales Of Automobiles By False Representations)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             False advertising (BP 17500)  could be considered a lesser included offense.  (People v. Conway (74) 42 CA3d 875, 885 [117 CR 251].)

 

PC 487(d) / PC 487h - Grand Theft Of An Automobile (See Also VC 10851)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Unlawful vehicle taking (VC 10851).  (People v. Stoltz DEPUBLISHED (92) 2 CA4th 1669, 1676-77 [4 CR2d 463]; People v. Pater (68) 267 CA2d 921, 926 [73 CR 823]; CJ 14.35 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 536).)

 

b.            Auto tampering (VC 10852).  (People v. Anderson (75) 15 C3d 806, 810-11 [126 CR 235]; CJ 14.35 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 536); People v. Hicks (83) 147 CA3d 424, 428 [195 CR 127].  [See Brief Bank # B-863 for briefing on this issue.]

 

c.           Joy riding (PC 499b) [before 1/1/97].  NOTE:  Effective January 1, 1997, PC 499b was amended, deleting reference to “any automobile, motorcycle, or other vehicle.”  The new statute only pertains to bicycles, motorboats or vessels.  PC 487h was repealed, and “automobile” was added to the grand theft statute (PC 487(d)), effective January 1, 1997.  (See FORECITE F 14.37 n4 [ALERT: Legislative Changes To Auto Theft And Related Statutes].)  (People v. Stoltz DEPUBLISHED (92) 2 CA4th 1669, 1676-77 [4 CR2d 463]; People v. Ivans (92) 2 CA4th 1654, 1664-65 [4 CR2d 66].)

 

PC 496 - Receiving Stolen Property

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of concealable weapon by felon (PC 12021).  (People v. Taylor (69) 2 CA3d 979, 985 [83 CR 119]; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

b.            Larceny (PC 484).  (People v. Ward (1895) 105 C 652, 659 [39 P 33]; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

c.            Petty theft of credit card (PC 484e).  (People v. Rowland (71) 21 CA3d 371, 375-76 [98 CR 419]; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

d.            Appropriation of lost property (PC 485) is not LIO of PC 496 under “elements” test because one may receive stolen property without having appropriated lost property.  (In re Greg F. (84) 159 CA3d 466, 469 [205 CR 614]; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

e.           Joy riding (PC 499b) [before 1/1/97].  (People v. Gutierrez (90) 219 CA3d 1, 6 [268 CR 26].)  NOTE:  Effective January 1, 1997, PC 499b was amended, deleting reference to “any automobile, motorcycle, or other vehicle.”  The new statute only pertains to bicycles, motorboats or vessels.  PC 487h was repealed, and “automobile” was added to the grand theft statute (PC 487(d)), effective January 1, 1997.  (See FORECITE F 14.37 n4 [ALERT: Legislative Changes To Auto Theft And Related Statutes].)

 

PC 496(a) - Receiving Stolen Property

 

[NOTE: If the defendant is charged with a theft crime, the court must give a sua sponte instruction that the jury cannot convict the defendant of both theft of the property and receiving the same property as stolen property. (People v. Garza (2005) 35 CA4th 866; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.82.)]

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663.496). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.82.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of concealable weapon by felon (PC 12021).  (People v. Taylor (1969) 2 CA3d 979, 985; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

b.            Larceny (PC 484).  (People v. Ward (1895) 105 C 652, 659; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

c.            Petty theft of credit card (PC 484e). (People v. Rowland (1971) 21 CA3d 371, 375-76; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

d.            Appropriation of lost property (PC 485) is not LIO of PC 496 under “elements” test because one may receive stolen property without having appropriated lost property. (In re Greg F. (1984) 159 CA3d 466, 469; CJ 14.65 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 537).)

 

e.            Joy riding (PC 499b) [before 1/1/97]. (People v. Gutierrez (1990) 219 CA3d 1, 6.) NOTE: Effective January 1, 1997, PC 499b was amended, deleting reference to “any automobile, motorcycle, or other vehicle.” The new statute only pertains to bicycles, motorboats or vessels. PC 487h was repealed, and “automobile” was added to the grand theft statute (PC 487(d)), effective January 1, 1997. (See FORECITE F 14.37 n4 [ALERT: Legislative Changes To Auto Theft And Related Statutes].)

 

PC 518-523 - Extortion

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted extortion (PC 524). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.48.)

 

PC 529 - False Personation

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor false personation (PC 148.9) is not a LIO of false personation (PC 529).  (People v. Robertson (90) 223 CA3d 1277, 1279-82 [273 CR 209].)

 

PC 530.5 - Trafficking Of Personal Identifying Information

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Unlawful possession of personal identifying information (PC 530.5(c)(1)) is lesser included offense of PC 530.5(c)(2)-(3). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.106.)

 

PC 548 - Destruction Of Insured Property With Intent To Defraud

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted disposal of insured property with intent to defraud.  (People v. Splawn (85) 165 CA3d 553, 559-60 [211 CR 638].)

PC 550 - Destruction Of Insured Property With Intent To Defraud

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            PC 550(a)(1) [insurance fraud: fraudulent claims] is not a LIO of PC 550(b)(1) [making a false and misleading statement regarding insurance benefits]. Because it is not true that a violation of PC 550(b)(1) "cannot be committed without also necessarily committing" a violation of PC 550 (a)(1) (People v. Lopez (1998) 19 C4th 282, 288), the latter provision is not a lesser included offense of the former. (People v. Zane UNPUB’D (9/20/2010, D055892) 2010 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 7421, 32.)

PC 594(a), (b)(1) - Felony Vandalism

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Misdemeanor vandalism (PC 594(a), (b)(2)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.107.)

 

 

PC 626.9 - Possessing/Carrying Loaded Firearm At School

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Possessing/carrying a loaded firearm in a public place (former PC 12031(a)(1)) not LIO of former PC 626.9(a).  (In re Joseph G. (95) 32 CA4th 1735, 1742 [38 CR2d 902].)

 

PC 646.9 - Felony Stalking

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Violation of a restraining order (PC 273.6).  This issue was raised but not resolved in the unpublished portion (96 DAR 8453, 8456) of People v. Sotomayor (1996) 47 CA4th 382; see also People v. McClelland (1996) 42 CA4th 144, 154. [See Brief Bank #B-700 for briefing on this issue.]

 

b.            Misdemeanor stalking (PC 646.9(a)).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.101.)

PC 653f, PC 653j - Solicitation To Commit Felony

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Attempted, but incomplete, solicitation of murder. (People v. Saephanh (2000) 80 CA4th 451, 461; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) §2.99.)

 

PC 666 - Punishment For Petty Theft After Prior Conviction

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Petty theft (PC 484-PC 488) is a necessarily lesser included offense of the section PC 666 offense charged.  (This is, of course, quite different from the allegation of a prior conviction simply to enhance punishment.)  (People v. Sherren (79) 89 CA3d 752, 758 [152 CR 828].)

 

PC 4500 – AGGRAVATED ASSAULT BY LIFE PRISONER

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            PC 245(a) is a necessarily included offense of PC 4501.  (People v. Noah (1971) 5 CA3d 469, 476 [offender who violates PC 4500 cannot violate PC 4501]; see also People v. Milward (2011) 52 CA4th 580.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             PC 4501 is not a necessarily included offense of PC 4500.  (People v. Noah (71) 5 C3d 469, 476 [96 CR 441] [offender who violates PC 4500 cannot violate PC 4501].)

 

PC 4501.1 - GASSING

            OFFENSES INCLUDED

a.            Battery on nonprisoner by prisoner (PC 4501.5).  Battery by a prisoner on a nonprisoner (PC 4501.5), is a necessarily included offense of battery by gassing (PC 4501.1). A defendant may not be convicted of both the greater and lesser included offense within the meaning of PC 954 and People v. Ortega (1998) 19 C4th 686, 692 [the elements test; if a crime cannot be committed without also necessarily committing a lesser offense, the latter is a lesser included offense within the former].) People v. Flores (2009) 176 CA4th 924 .)     

 

PC 4501.5 - Battery On Nonprisoner By Prisoner

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Assault.  Where the victim of a battery is admittedly a correctional officer and the accused is a prisoner, there can be no lesser included offense of assault, restricting or obstructing a public officer in the discharge or attempt to discharge the duties of his office, and disturbing the peace, all misdemeanors. (People v. Coleman (78) 84 CA3d 1016, 1022-23 [149 CR 134] citing People v. Jacobs (72) 27 CA3d 246, 267 [103 CR 536] [self-defense instructions apply only to prisoners faced with improper use of force].)

 

PC 4532 - Escape By Prisoner

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple escape (PC 4532(a)) is LIO of forcible escape (PC 4532(b)).  (People v. Lozano (1987) 192 CA3d 618, 633, fn 15.)

 

a.            Misdemeanor escape following arrest (PC 836.6(a)-(b) is lesser included offense of felony escape following arrest (PC 836.6(c)). California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.47.)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt to escape requires an additional element of specific intent to escape. (People v. Bailey (2012) 54 CA4th 740 [involved PC 4530 escape or attempt to escape from state prison]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.47.)

 

WEAPONS OFFENSES - POSSESSION OFFENSES

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

See California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.40:

 

1.           If defendant is charged with one of the sentencing factors in PC 25400(c)(1)-(6) making a violation of PC 25400(a) a felony then the misdemeanor violation of PC 25400(a) is a lesser included offense.

 

2.            If defendant is charged with one of the sentencing factors in PC 25850(c)(1)-(6), making a violation of PC 25850(a) a felony, then the misdemeanor violation of PC 25850(a) is a lesser included offense.

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Carrying a loaded firearm in a public place (PC 25850(a)) is not a lesser included offense of carrying a concealed firearm (PC 25400(a)). (People v. Hull (2010) 183 CA4th 380, 384-86; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.40.)

 

PC 12020, PC 12021, PC 12021.1, PC 12023, PC 12024, PC 12025, PC 12031, PC 12303, PC 12303.2 - Deadly Weapons and Firearms - Possession Offenses.  (See also specific PC sections below.) (NOTE: See California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.40 [the various weapons included in former PC 12020(a)(1)-(2) have been recast by the Deadly Weapons Recodification Act of 2010 (PC 16000-34370) into individual and separate code sections; see also specific PC sections below].)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.            Carrying concealable firearm concealed in vehicle on person by any person without a license [prior to 2010] (PC 12025(a)-(b).) (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2007) § 2.33.)

 

PC 12021 - Possession Of A Firearm By A Felon

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor brandishing of a replica firearm (PC 417.2).  (People v. Moore (90) 224 CA3d 234, 237 [273 CR 680].)

 

b.            Carrying loaded firearm in vehicle (PC 12031).  (People v. Harrison (69) 1 CA3d 115, 122 [81 CR 396].)

 

PC 12022.3 / PC 12022.5 - Use Of A Firearm Enhancement

 

(See LIO II(A)(4) [lesser enhancements must be requested].)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Carrying firearm in commission or attempted commission of felony (PC 12022) in cases where the evidence only weakly demonstrates “use” of a weapon.  (People v. Allen (85) 165 CA3d 616, 627 [211 CR 837] [PC 12022(a) is a lesser included of PC 12022.5]; People v. Hays (83) 147 CA3d 534, 544-49 [195 CR 252] [same]; People v. Turner (83) 145 CA3d 658, 683-84 [193 CR 614] [PC 12022 is LIO of PC 12022.3]; People v. Schaefer (93) 18 CA4th 950, 951 [22 CR 536] [defendant’s admission of a use allegation (PC 12022.5) necessarily included an arming enhancement (PC 12022(b)]; cf. People v. Manning (92) 5 CA4th 88, 90-91 [6 CR 2d 671], questioning Turner (because enhancements are not convictions/offenses).)

 

PC 12025(b)(6) – Carrying Concealed Firearm

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Carrying loaded firearm in public place. (PC 12031(a)(2)(F)) (People v. Hall (2010) 183 CA4th 380 [loaded firearm offense has additional element: it must be carried in a public place; person carrying a loaded, concealed firearm in a private place would violate PC 12025 but not 12031].)

 

PC 12034 - Firearms In Motor Vehicles

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED 

 

a.            Carrying concealable firearm concealed in vehicle on person by any person without a license (PC 12025(a)-(b).  (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2007) § 2.34.)

 

b.            Assault with firearm (PC 245(a)(2) as LIO of discharging firearm from a vehicle (PC 12034(c)).) In re Edward G. (2004) 124 CA4th 962.

 

PC 12303.2 - Reckless Or Malicious Possession Of A Destructive Device

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple possession of a destructive device (PC 12303).  (People v. Morse (91) 2 CA4th 620, 648 [3 CR2d 343]; see also, People v. Westoby (76) 63 CA3d 790, 795 [134 CR 97].)

 

b.           Unlawful possession of an explosive (HS 12305). (People v. Westoby (76) 63 CA3d 790, 795 [134 CR 97].)

 

PC 12303.3 - Possession, Etc. Of Destructive Device With Intent To Injure Or Intimidate

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of firebomb (PC 453(b)).  (People v. Sanders (87) 191 CA3d 79, 79, 83 [236 CR 197].)

 

PC 30305(a) - Illegal Possession of Ammunition

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.42.)

 

PC 31360 - Illegal Possession Of Body Armor

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.43.)

 

PC 18710-18755 - Destructive Devices And Explosives

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of destructive device (PC 18710). (People v. Westoby (1976) 63 CA3d 790, 795-96; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.44.)

 

b.            Possession of explosive (HS 12305). (People v. Westoby (1976) 63 CA3d 790, 795-96; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.44.)

 

c.            Explosion of destructive device or explosive causing bodily injury (PC 18750) is a lesser included offense of explosion of destructive device or explosive causing death, mayhem or GBI (PC 18755). (People v. Poulin (1972) 27 CA3d 54, 60-61; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.44.)

 

LIO VI(C)              Health and Safety Code (HS) Violations:

 

HS 11350, HS 11357, HS 11377 - Possession of Controlled Substances (Schedule I - V) [Formerly Classified As Narcotics]; [Marijuana]; [Controlled Substances Formerly Classified As Restricted Dangerous Drugs].  CJ 12.00 (5th ed. 1988).

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Being under the influence of a narcotic (HS 11721 [repealed]), now HS 11550.  (People v. Gomez (64) 229 CA2d 781, 784 [40 CR 616]; CJ 12.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 533).)

 

b.           Presence where narcotics are being used (HS 11365).  (People v. Wilson (69) 271 CA2d 60, 62 [76 CR 195]; CJ 12.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 533); People v. Cressey (70) 2 C3d 836, 849 [87 CR 699] [former HS 11556 not a LIO of HS 11530].)

 

c.           Planting and cultivation of a narcotic (HS 11530 [repealed], now see HS 11358).  (People v. McDaniel (57) 154 CA2d 475, 483 (but see p. 485) [316 P2d 660]; CJ 12.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 533).)

 

d.            Petty theft of a narcotic acquired by theft (PC 484, PC 486).  (People v. Gallagher (59) 168 CA2d 417, 426-27 [336 P2d 259]; CJ 12.00 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 534).)

 

HS 11351, HS 11351.5, HS 11378, HS 11378.5 - Controlled Substances; Possession For Sale Or Purchase For Sale (Schedule I - V) CJ 12.01 (5th ed. 1988).

 

ALERT:               It is an established principle that simple possession is necessarily included in possession for sale of a controlled substance. (See People v. Clay (1969) 273 CA2d 279, 284-85; see also FORECITE LIO CHK VI(C).) 

 

NOTE:                 Possession for sale is not a necessarily included offense of transportation of narcotics because one may be able to transport drugs without necessarily possessing them. (People v. Watterson (1991) 234 CA3d 942, 947; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.37.) 

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession incidental to sale (HS 11530 [repealed], now see HS 11357 [marijuana]). (People v. Francis (1969) 71 CA2d 66, 72-73; CJ 12.01 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 534).)

 

b.           Simple possession (HS 11350 [“narcotics” -- heroin]) where supported by the evidence.  (People v. Saldana (1984) 157 CA3d 443, 453-58; CJ 12.01 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 534); People v. Francis (1969) 71 CA2d 66, 73; People v. Adams (1990) 220 CA3d 680, 690 [possession of cocaine for sale within the meaning of HS 11350 is a LIO of possession of cocaine for sale in violation of HS 11351].

 

c.            Attempted possession (PC 663) of a controlled substance for sale when there is an agreement or contract to purchase, but the defendant never achieves actual or constructive possession of the controlled substance. (Armstrong v. Superior Court (1990) 217 CA3d 535, 540; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.37.)

 

d.            Sale and offer to sell include simple possession. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.37.) 

 

e.            Possession for sale or with intent to manufacture includes simple possession. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.37.)

 

f.            Both simple possession and possession for sale may be lesser included offenses of sale of cocaine. (People v. Tinajero (1993) 19 CA4th 1541, 1546; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.37; but see People v. Peregrina-Larios (1994) 22 CA4th 1522, 1524 [simple possession of controlled substance is not a necessarily included offense of selling or offering to sell because possession contains elements that a sales offense does not; the knowing possession of a usable quantity].)

 

HS 11351.5 - Possession or Sale of Base Cocaine

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.             Possession for sale of ordinary cocaine (HS 11350).  (People v. Adams (90) 220 CA3d 680, 689-91 [269 CR 479].)

 

HS 11352, HS 11379 - Controlled Substances -- Transportation, Sale, Administration, Etc. (Schedule I - V)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession incident to transportation (HS 11530 [repealed], now see HS 11357 [marijuana]).  (People v. Rogers (71) 5 C3d 129, 134, fn 3 [95 CR 601]; see also, People v. Thomas (91) 231 CA3d 299, 305-06 [282 CR 258], where court said the current test of LIOs directs to a different result than Rogers and that a PC 654 stay is sufficient; but see People v. Watterson (91) 234 CA3d 942, 947 [286 CR 13] [one may be able to transport drugs without necessarily possessing them].)

 

b.            Attempted possession of a controlled substance for sale is a LIO of possession for sale when there is an agreement or contract to purchase, but the defendant never achieves actual or constructive possession of the substance.  (Armstrong v. Superior Court (90) 217 CA3d 535, 540 [265 CR 877].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple possession, because it contains elements a sales/offering offense does not: knowing possession of a usable quantity.  (People v. Peregrina-Larios (94) 22 CA4th 1522, 1524 [28 CR2d 316]; see also, People v. Watterson (91) 234 CA3d 942, 944-47 [286 CR 13] [possession not LIO of transportation]; but see People v. Richardson (70) 6 CA3d 70, 78 [85 CR 607].)

 

b.            Possession incident to transportation (HS 11350 [base cocaine]).  (People v. Thomas (91) 231 CA3d 299, 305 [282 CR 258].)

 

c.            Possession for sale (HS 11351 [cocaine]). (People v. Watterson (91) 234 CA3d 942, 947; HS 11351.5 [cocaine base] People v. Murphy (2005)134 CA4th 1504 [possession for sale (HS 11351.5) not LIO of sale (HS 11352)].)

 

d.            Conspiracy to offer a narcotic for sale (PC 182).  (People v. Diaz (62) 206 CA2d 651, 673  [24 CR 367] [offer to sell at a later date constituted a separate offenses; conspiracy to offer and offer are separate offenses]; CJ 12.02 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 534).)

 

e.            Offer to sell (HS 11500 [repealed]).  (People v. Diaz (62) 206 CA2d 651, 672-73 [24 CR 367].)

 

f.           Possession not incidental to sale (HS 11530 [repealed], now see HS 11350 [marijuana]).  (People v. Wallace (62) 199 CA2d 678, 681 [18 CR 917]; CJ 12.01 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 534).)

 

HS 11357-11361 Marijuana

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt (PC 663). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.36.)

 

b.            Sale and offer to sell include simple possession and possession for sale. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.36.)

 

c.            Possession for sale and cultivation include simple possession. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.36.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Being under the influence of a narcotic (HS 11721 [repealed]).  (People v. Gomez (64) 229 CA2d 781, 784 [40 CR 616].)

 

b.            Presence where narcotics are being used (HS 11365).  (People v. Wilson (69) 271 CA2d 60, 62 [76 CR 195]; People v. Cressey (70) 2 C3d 836, 849 n16 [87 CR 699].)

 

c.            Planting and cultivation of a narcotic (HS 11530 [repealed], now see HS 11358).  (People v. McDaniel (57) 154 CA2d 475, 484 [316 P2d 660] [possession not LIO of cultivation at p. 483; but see p. 485].)

 

HS 11359 - Possession Of Marijuana For Sale

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Simple possession where supported by evidence (HS 11357).  (People v. Saldana (84) 157 CA3d 443, 453-58 [204 CR 465]; CJ 12.21 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535).)

 

b.            Attempted possession of a controlled substance for sale when there is an agreement or contract to purchase, but the defendant never achieves actual or constructive possession of the controlled substance.  (Armstrong v. Superior Court (90) 217 CA3d 535, 540 [265 CR 877].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of marijuana (HS 11357).  (People v. Douglas (87) 193 CA3d 1691, 1695-96 [239 CR 252]; CJ 12.21 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 535).)

 

b.            Offer to sell (HS 11500 [repealed]).  (People v. Diaz (62) 206 CA2d 651, 672-73 [24 CR 367].)

 

HS 11360 - Marijuana -- Transportation, Sale, Administration, Etc.

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED AND NOT INCLUDED, SEE HS 11352.

 

HS 11370.1 - Possession Of Methamphetamine While Armed

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of methamphetamine (HS 11377) is a lesser included of possession of methamphetamine while armed (HS 11370.1).  (People v. Rupe UNPUBLISHED (F030836).)

 

HS 11370.1 - Possessing Cocaine While Armed With A Loaded, Operable Firearm

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of cocaine (HS 11350(a).) (People v. Jaffe DEPUBLISHED (2005) 122 CA4th 1559.)

 

HS 11370.1 - Possession While Armed

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            See possession offenses. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.38.))

 

HS 11370.6 - Unlawful Possession Of Funds In Excess Of $100,000 In Connection With Controlled Substances

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            None. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.39.))

 

HS 11378.5 - Possession Of PCP, Precursors/Analogs For Sale

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Possession of controlled substance (HS 11377).  (People v. Patino (84) 160 CA3d 986, 994 [206 CR 762].)

 

LIO VI(D)              Vehicle Code (VC) Violations:

 

VC 2800.1-2800.3 - Flight From Pursuing Peace Officer

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempt. (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.51.)

 

b.            Nonwillful and wanton flight from a peace officer (VC 2800.1).  (People v. Springfield (1993) 13 CA4th 1674, 1679-81; CJ 12.86 (5th ed. 1996, pocket part, p. 95).)

 

c.           Evading police officer under VC 2800.1 is a lesser included offense of VC 2800.3 (evading police officer causing serious injury or death). (People v. Sewell (2000) 80 CA4th 690, 697 [disapproved on other grounds in 34 CA4th 1129, 1139 n5]; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.51.)

 

VC 10801 - Owning/Operating A Chop Shop

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Receiving stolen property (PC 496).  (People v. King (2000) 81 CA4th 472, 476-79 [96 CR2d 817]; see also People v. Sanchez (2003) 113 CA4th 325.)

 

VC 10802 - Tampering With VIN To Misrepresent And Prevent Identification

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor vehicle identification number tampering (VC 10750(a)).  (See People v. Joiner (2000) 84 CA4th 946, 964-73 [101 CR2d 270].)

 

VC 10851 - Unlawful Vehicle Taking (See also PC 487, PC 499)

 

ALERT:                 Effective January 1, 1997, PC 499b was amended, deleting reference to “any automobile, motorcycle, or other vehicle.”  The new statute only pertains to bicycles, motorboats or vessels.  PC 487h was repealed, and “automobile” was added to the grand theft statute (PC 487(d)), effective January 1, 1997.  (See FORECITE F 14.37 n4 [ALERT: Legislative Changes To Auto Theft And Related Statutes].)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Joy riding (PC 499b) [before 1/1/97] when the evidence supports both unlawful vehicle taking and joy riding, jury must be instructed upon, sua sponte.  (People v. James (84) 157 CA3d 381, 387-88 [203 CR 716]; CJ 14.36 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 536); People v. Gutierrez (90) 219 CA3d 1, 6 [268 CR 26]; People v. Barrick (82) 33 C3d 115, 134-35 [187 CR 716] [extensive ignition tampering not inconsistent with joy riding].)  Where accusatory pleading charges the VC 10851 offense in the conjunctive, that is, “driving and taking” (People v. Barrick (82) 33 C3d 115, 135 [187 CR 716]; People v. Green (95) 34 CA4th 165, 175 [40 CR2d 239]; see also, People v. Ivans (92) 2 CA4th 1654, 1664-65 [4 CR2d 66]; see also, People v. Stoltz DEPUBLISHED (92) 2 CA4th 1669, 1676-77 [4 CR2d 463] [PC 499b is LIO of VC 10851].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Joy riding (PC 499b) when the evidence supports guilt of unlawful vehicle taking only.  (People v. Thomas (62) 58 C2d 121, 127-30 [23 CR 161]; CJ 14.36 (5th ed. 1988, Appendix C, p. 536).)

 

VC 14601 - Driving ON Suspended/Revoked License

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             Driving without a license (VC 12500).  (People v. Carroll UNPUBLISHED (C014926).)

 

VC 20001-20003 - Failure To Stop After Accident Resulting In Death Or Injury (Felony)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor hit and run involving property damage (VC 20002) may be a lesser included offense under the “accusatory pleadings” test if the pleading charge hit-and-run driving resulting in both injury to person and injury to property. (People v. Carter (1966) 243 CA2d 239, 242; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.49.)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Misdemeanor hit and run involving property damage (VC 20002) is not a lesser included offense of VC 20001. (People v. Carter (1966) 243 CA2d 239, 242; California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.49.)

 

b.            Misdemeanor vehicular manslaughter. (People v. Steinbach (1959) 166 CA2d 307, 311-12.)

 

VC 23105 - Reckless Driving Causing Specific Bodily Injuries

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor reckless driving (VC 23103(a)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.83.)

 

VC 23109.1 - Speed Contest Causing Specified Bodily Injuries

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor speed contest (VC 23109(a)). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.100.)

 

VC 23110 - Throwing Substances At Vehicles

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            VC 23110(a) is a LIO (misdemeanor) of throwing substances at a vehicle and its occupants on a highway with intent to do great bodily harm (VC 23110(b)).  (In re Roland K. (78) 82 CA3d 295, 295 [147 CR 96].)

 

VC 23152 - Driving Under The Influence (Misdemeanor)

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Attempted driving under the influence (where the defendant attempted to start the car and it rolled 15-20 feet but never started -- court also recognized that provisions of PC 664 and PC 1159 regarding attempts and lesser included offenses apply to attempted crimes which are not specifically made punishable by provisions of the Penal Code but rather by provisions of the Vehicle Code or Health and Safety Code.  (People v. Garcia (89) 214 CA3d Supp 1, 2-3 [262 CR 915]; see also, Witkin and Epstein, California Criminal Law, 2nd ed., Vol. 6,  § 3036, et seq.)

 

b.            Drunk in public (PC 647(f)) if evidence to support.  (People v. Weathington (91) 231 CA3d 69, 77-79 [282 CR 170].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            VC 23152(b).  VC 23152(a) and VC 23152(b) are distinct offenses; (b) is not LIO of (a).  (People v. Subramani (85) 173 CA3d 1106, 1111 [219 CR 644] citing Borg v. Municipal Court (83) 35 C3d 257, 264-65 [198 CR 145].)

 

VC 23152, VC 23153 - Driving Under Influence Felony

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Misdemeanor driving under the influence or with 0.08% alcohol. (VC 23152). (California Mandatory Criminal Jury Instruction Handbook (CJER) (2013) § 2.46.)

 

VC 23153(a) - Causing Bodily Injury While Driving Under The Influence

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Driving under the influence (VC 23152).  (People v. Capetillo (90) 220 CA3d 211, 220-21 [269 CR 250]; People v. Phillips (85) 168 CA3d 642, 647, fn 3 [214 CR 417].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Causing bodily injury while driving with blood alcohol level of .10 (.08) (VC 23153(b)).  (People v. Subramani (85) 173 CA3d 1106, 1111 [219 CR 644]; People v. Duarte (84) 161 CA3d 438, 446-88 [207 CR 615] [although PC 654 applies where defendant convicted under both subdivisions VC 23153(a) and VC 23153(b).  In addition, all use of conviction under (b) for penal and administrative purposes must be stayed].)

 

b.             Vehicular manslaughter (PC 192).  (People v. Young (64) 224 CA2d 420 [36 CR 672].)

 

c.             Having an open container in vehicle (VC 23223(a)).  (People v. Wren (69) 271 CA2d 788, 791 [76 CR 673].)

 

VC 23153(b) - Causing Bodily Injury While Driving With Blood Alcohol Level Of .10 (.08) Or More

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Driving under the influence (VC 23152(a)).  (People v. Phillips (85) 168 CA3d 642, 647, fn 3 [214 CR 417].)

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.           Causing bodily injury while driving under the influence (VC 23153(a)).  (People v. Subramani (85) 173 CA3d 1106, 1111 [219 CR 644] [offenses proscribed in VC 23153(a) and VC 23153(b) are separate from each other and neither is a LIO of the other.)

 

VC 23566(b) (former VC 23190(b)) - DUI; Repeat Convictions

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.             VC 23566(a) (former VC 23190(a)), in any case where a violation of subd. VC 23566(b) (former VC 23190(b)) is alleged, a violation of subd. (a) will be an included offense if great bodily injury is not proven.

 

LIO VI(E)   Harbor and Navigation Code (HN) Violations:

 

HN 655 - Felony Drunk Boating

 

OFFENSES NOT INCLUDED

 

a.            Operating a boat at unsafe speed (Cal. Admin. Code Title 14, 6615) and reckless or negligent boating in violation of HN 655(a) are not lesser included offenses of felony drunk boating (HN 655(c), now see HN 655(f)).  (People v. Armitage (87) 194 CA3d 405, 417 [239 CR 515].)

 

LIO VI(F)   Revenue and Taxation Code (California) (RT) Violations:

 

RT 19705 - Willful Failure To File Tax Return/Filing False Return [former RT 19405]

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.            Failure to file a return (RT 19701 [former RT 19401]). (People v. Hagen (98) 19 C4th 652, 669 [80 CR2d 24];  (People v. Jones (83) 149 CA3d Supp 42, 47 [197 CR 273]; People v. Smith (84) 155 CA3d 1103, 1182-85 [203 CR 196]; see also, People v. Kuhn (63) 216 CA2d 695, 696 [31 CR 253].) [Additional briefing on this issue is available to FORECITE subscribers.  Ask for Brief Bank # B-557.]

 

LIO VI(G)   Miscellaneous Rules and Codes]:

 

Judicial Conduct/Performance - Willful Judicial Misconduct

 

OFFENSES INCLUDED

 

a.           Conduct prejudicial is LIO of willful misconduct.  (Gonzalez v. Commission on Judicial Performance (83) 33 C3d 359, 365 [188 CR 80]; see also, Spruance v. Commission on Judicial Qualification (75) 13 C3d 778 [119 CR 841]; McCartney v. Commission on Judicial Qualification (74) 12 C3d 512 [116 CR 260]; Geiler v. Commission on Judicial Qualification (73) 10 C3d 270 [110 CR 201].)